Amukha, Āmukha: 15 definitions


Amukha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Amukh.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Āmukha (आमुख).—The introduction, which is technically called āmukha, may be of five different kinds, according to the Sāhitya-darpaṇa (6.288): “Introductions may be classified as follows:

  1. udghātyaka,
  2. kathodghāta,
  3. prayogātiśaya,
  4. pravartaka,
  5. avalagita.”

These five kinds of introduction are called āmukha.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Āmukha (आमुख, “the introduction”) refers to one of the four varieties of the verbal style (bhāratī), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 22. Bhāratī represents one of the four styles (vṛtti) employed in a dramatic production. Accordingly, “that part of a play where an actress, the jester or the assistant has a talk with the director on some relevant topic, and they use interesting words or adopt any type of the vīthī or talk in any other way, is called the introduction (āmukha) or the prologue (prastāvanā) by some”.

The five varieties (lit. elements) of the introduction (āmukha) are as follows:

  1. the accidental interpretation (udghātyaka),
  2. the opening of the story (kathodghātā),
  3. the particular presentation (prayogātiśaya),
  4. the personal business, (pravṛttaka),
  5. the transference (avalagita).
Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Āmukha (आमुख) or Mukha refers to the “beginning of the Drama”, according to the Sāhityadarpaṇa.—The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that at the very beginning of the Sanskrit drama, praveśaka i.e., the introducer should introduce the plot of the drama that has been continuing for many days and this narration must be very brief. In the Sāhityadarpaṇa also, the description of those incidents which have already been happened are suggested in the very beginning of the Drama and the technical term of this part of a Drama is known as mukha or āmukha.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Amukha (अमुख) refers to “those having no faces”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.43 (“Description of Śiva’s wonderful sport”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Immediately the army of Śiva came there consisting of wonderful arrays of Bhūtas, Pretas and Gaṇas.  [...] Some were awful with overgrown moustaches and beards. Some were lame. Some were blind. Some held staffs and nooses and some great iron clubs in their hands. Some rode on peculiar vehicles. Some played on horns. Some played on Ḍamarus. Some played on Gomukhas. Some had no faces (amukha). Some had distorted and deformed faces. Some had many faces. Some had no hands. Others had deformed hands. Some of them had many hands. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख).—

1) Commencement.

2) (In dramas) A prologue, prelude (prastāvanā); (every Sanskrit play is introduced by आमुख (āmukha). It is thus defined in S. D. नटी विदू- षको वाऽपि पारिपार्श्वक एव वा । सूत्रधारेण सहिताः संलापं यत्र कुर्वते ॥ चित्रैर्वाक्यैः स्वकार्योत्थैः प्रस्तुताक्षेपिभिर्मिथः । आमुखं तत्तु विज्ञेयं नाम्ना प्रस्तावनाऽपि सा (naṭī vidū- ṣako vā'pi pāripārśvaka eva vā | sūtradhāreṇa sahitāḥ saṃlāpaṃ yatra kurvate || citrairvākyaiḥ svakāryotthaiḥ prastutākṣepibhirmithaḥ | āmukhaṃ tattu vijñeyaṃ nāmnā prastāvanā'pi sā) || 287.

-kham ind. To the face.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख).—adj., (presenting itself) before one's face; present, at hand: Jātakamālā 92.24 mṛtyor mukham ivāmukham (…vaḍabāmukham); Bhadracarī 58 āmukhi (m.c. for °khe; one ms. °kha) sarvi bhaveyu samagrāḥ, may they all be present (to me; āmukhi probably loc. sg., adverbial, rather than n. pl. with pronominal ending); Gaṇḍavyūha 54.20 (verse) māra- maṇḍalaraṇasmi āmukhe (loc. abs.), when the battle…is at hand; Bodhisattvabhūmi 14.13 -saddharmāntardhānim āmukhām upagatāṃ paśyati; Bodhisattvabhūmi 251.1 (bhayabhairavair) āmukhaiḥ. Cf. the following items, and s.v. poṣadha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख).—n.

(-khaṃ) 1. Prelude, prologue. 2. Commencement. ind. To the face. E. āṅ before mukha face or beginning.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख).—[ā-mukha], n. Prelude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Amukha (अमुख):—[=a-mukha] ([Taittirīya-saṃhitā]) or a-mukha ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv]) mfn. having no mouth.

2) Āmukha (आमुख):—[=ā-mukha] n. commencement, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] prelude, prologue, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] mfn. being in front or before the eyes, [Jātakamālā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख):—[ā-mukha] (khaṃ) 1. n. Prelude, commencement. adv. To the face.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Amukha (अमुख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Amuha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Amukha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Āmukha (आमुख) [Also spelled amukh]:—(nm) the preamble.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āmukha (ಆಮುಖ):—[noun] (drama.) an introduction to a play, esp., introductory lines spoken by a member of the cast before a dramatic performance; a prologue; a prelude.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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