Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

First recitation section

On the going forth of the six Sakyans

Kd.17.1.1 BD.5.253 At one time the Awakened One, the Lord, was staying at Anupiyā. Anupiyā[1] is a little town[2] of the Mallas.[3] Now at that time many distinguished Sakyan young men had gone forth in imitation of the Lord who had gone forth. Now at that time Mahānāma the Sakyan and Anuruddha the Sakyan were two brothers. Anuruddha the Sakyan was delicately nurtured. He had three palaces,[4] one for the cold weather, one for the hot, one for the rains. Being waited on for four months in the palace for the rains by female musicians, he did not come down from that palace. Then it occurred to Mahānāma the Sakyan:[5] “At present many distinguished Sakyan young men have gone forth in imitation of the Lord who has gone forth, but no one from our family has gone forth from home into homelessness. Suppose I should go forth, or Anuruddha?” Then Mahānāma the Sakyan approached Anuruddha the Sakyan; having approached, he spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “At present, dear Anuruddha, many distinguished Sakyan young men … but no one from our family has gone forth from home into homelessness. Well now, either you go forth or I will go forth.”[6]

“But I have been delicately nurtured, I am not able to go forth from home into homelessness.[7] You go forth.”

Kd.17.1.2 “Come along, dear Anuruddha, I will instruct you in what belongs to the household life. First the fields have to be ploughed;[8] having had them ploughed they must be sown; having had them sown water must be led in to them; having BD.5.254 had water led in to them the water must be led away; having led the water away you must have the weeds dug up; having had the weeds dug up you must get the crop reaped; having had the crop reaped you must have it harvested; having had it harvested you must have it made into stooks; having had it made into stooks you must have it threshed; having had it threshed you must have the straw winnowed; having had the straw Vin.2.181 winnowed you must have the chaff winnowed; having had the chaff winnowed you must have it sifted; having had it sifted you must have it[9] brought in;[10] having had it brought in it is to be done just the same the next year, and it is to be done just the same the next year.”

“The operations do not stop,[11] no end to the operations is to be seen. When will the operations stop? When will an end to the operations be seen? When will we, possessed of and provided with the fivefold strand of sense pleasures, amuse ourselves unconcernedly?”

“But, dear Anuruddha, the operations do not stop, no end to the operations is to be seen. Even when our fathers and grandfathers passed away the operations were not stopped.”

“Well now, you understand[12] just what belongs to the household life. I will go forth from home into homelessness.”

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan approached his mother; having approached, he spoke thus to his mother: “I, mother, want to go forth from home into homelessness. Consent to my going forth from home into homelessness.”[13] When he had spoken thus, the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan:

“You two boys, dear Anuruddha, are dear to me,[14] beloved, agreeable. In the case of your death I would be unwillingly separated from you. So how can I, while you are still living, allow a going forth from home into homelessness?” And a second time … And a third time Anuruddha the Sakyan spoke thus to his mother: … the mother of Anuruddha the BD.5.255 Sakyan spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “… how can I, while you are still living, allow a going forth from home into homelessness?”


Kd.17.1.3 Now at that time Bhaddiya[15] the Sakyan chieftain was ruling over the Sakyans and was a friend of Anuruddha the Sakyan. Then the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan thinking: “Now this Bhaddiya … is a friend of Anuruddha; he will not be able to go forth from home into homelessness,” spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “If, dear Anuruddha, Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain goes forth from home into homelessness you can go forth likewise.”[16]

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan approached Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain; having approached, he spoke thus to Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain: “My going forth, friend, is dependent on yours.”

“If your going forth, friend, is dependent on mine, let it be independent. I, with you …[17] Go forth according to your wish.”

“Come, friend, we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“I, friend, am not able to go forth from home into homelessness. Vin.2.182 Whatever else I am able to do for you, that will I do. You go forth.”

“My mother, friend, spoke thus to me: ‘If, dear Anuruddha, Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain goes forth from home into homelessness, you can go forth likewise.’ But, friend, these words were spoken by you: ‘If your going forth is dependent on mine, let it be independent. I, with you … Go forth according to your wish.’ Come, friend, we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”


Now at that time people were speakers of truth, pledged to the truth. Then Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain spoke thus to Anuruddha the Sakyan: “Wait, friend, for seven years. After seven years we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

BD.5.256 “Seven years are too long, friend, I am not able to wait for seven years.”

“Wait, friend, for six years … live … four … three … two years … for one year.”

“One year is too long, friend, I am not able to wait one year.”

“Wait, friend, for seven months. After seven months we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“Seven months are too long, friend, I am not able to wait seven months.”

“Wait, friend, for six … five … four … three … two months … one month … for half a month, after half a month we will both go forth from home into homelessness.”

“Half a month is too long, friend, I am not able to wait half a month.”

“Wait, friend, for seven days until I hand over the kingdom to my sons and brothers.”

“Seven days are not too long, friend, I will wait.”

Kd.17.1.4 Then[18] Bhaddiya the Sakyan chieftain and Anuruddha[19] and Ānanda and Bhagu[20] and Kimbila[21] and Devadatta with Upāli the barber[22] as the seventh, as they had often previously gone out to a ground in a pleasure grove with a fourfold army,[23] so did they (now) go out with a fourfold army. Having gone far, having sent back the army, having passed into other territory, having taken off their ornaments, having tied them up into a bundle with their upper robes,[24] they spoke thus to Upāli the barber: “Come, good Upāli, return, this will be enough for your livelihood.” Then it occurred to Upāli the barber as he was going back: “The Sakyans are fierce. Thinking: ‘This one has made the young men come forth,’ they may even kill me. But if these young Sakyan men will go forth from home into homelessness, why should not I?”

Having loosened the bundle, having hung the goods up on a tree, and having said: “Whoever sees it, it is given (to him), Vin.2.183 let him take it,”[25] he approached the young Sakyan men. BD.5.257 These young Sakyan men saw Upāli the barber coming in the distance; having seen him, then spoke thus to Upāli the barber: “Why have you, good Upāli, returned?”

“Now, it occurred to me, young gentlemen, as I was going back, ‘The Sakyans are fierce … they may even kill me. But if these young Sakyan men will go forth from home into homelessness, why should not I?’ So I, young gentlemen, having loosened the bundle … ‘… let him take it,’ returned again from there.”

“You did well, good Upāli, in that you did not go back. The Sakyans are fierce … they might even have killed you.” Then these young Sakyan men, taking Upāli the barber, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these young Sakyan men spoke thus to the Lord:

“We, Lord, are Sakyans, we are proud. Lord, this barber, Upāli, has been our attendant for a long time. May the Lord let him go forth first. We will greet him, rise up before him, salute him with joined palms, and do the proper duties. Thus will the Sakyan pride be humbled in us Sakyans.” Then the Lord let Upāli the barber go forth first, and afterwards these young Sakyan men. Then the venerable Bhaddiya within one year realised the threefold knowledge,[26] the venerable Anuruddha obtained deva-sight,[27] the venerable Ānanda realised the fruit of stream attainment, Devadatta acquired ordinary psychic power.[28]


Kd.17.1.5 Now at that time[29] the venerable Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, constantly uttered this utterance: “Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!” Then several monks approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

BD.5.258 “Lord, the venerable Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest utters this utterance: ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’ Doubtless, Lord, the venerable Bhaddiya fares the Brahma-faring dissatisfied,[30] and (although) dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, he utters this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’ while he is recalling the former joys of kingship.”

Then the Lord addressed a certain monk, saying: “Come you, monk, in my name address the monk Bhaddiya saying: ‘The Teacher, reverend Bhaddiya, is summoning you’.” Vin.2.184

“Very well, Lord,” and that monk, having answered the Lord in assent, approached the venerable Bhaddiya; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Bhaddiya: “The Teacher, reverend Bhaddiya, is summoning you.”

Kd.17.1.6 “Very well, your reverence,” and the venerable Bhaddiya, having answered that monk in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. The Lord spoke thus to the venerable Bhaddiya as he was sitting down at a respectful distance: “Is it true, as is said, that you, Bhaddiya, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, are constantly uttering this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’?”

“Yes, Lord.”

“What circumstances were you, Bhaddiya, taking into account when, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, you constantly uttered this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’?”

“Formerly, Lord, when I was a ruler there was a fully appointed guard both within my private quarters and outside my private quarters, there was a fully appointed guard both within the town and outside the town, and there was a fully appointed guard within the country districts. But I, Lord, although being guarded and warded thus, dwelt afraid, anxious fearful, alarmed.[31] But now I, Lord, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, am unafraid, not anxious, not fearful, not alarmed. I am unconcerned, BD.5.259 unruffled,[32] dependent on others,[33] with a mind become as a wild creature’s.[34] This, Lord, was the circumstance I was taking into account when, dwelling in a forest and at the root of a tree and in an empty place, I constantly uttered this utterance, ‘Ah, what happiness! Ah, what happiness!’”

Then the Lord, having understood this matter, at that time uttered this utterance:

“In whom there inly lurk no spites,
Who has overcome becoming and not becoming thus or thus,[35]
Him, gone past fear, blissful, sorrowless,
The devas do not win to see.”


The story of Devadatta

Kd.17.2.1 Then the Lord, having stayed at Anupiyā for as long as he found suiting, set out on almstour for Kosambī. Gradually, walking on tour, he arrived at Kosambī. The Lord stayed there at Kosambī in Ghosita’s monastery. Then as Devadatta was meditating in private a reasoning arose in his mind thus: “Whom[36] now could I please, so that because he is pleased with me, much gain and honour would accrue (to me)?”[37] Then it occurred to Devadatta: “This Prince Ajātasattu is young Vin.2.185 and also has an auspicious future. What now if I were to make Prince Ajātasattu pleased, so that because he is pleased with me, much gain and honour would accrue (to me)?”

BD.5.260 Then Devadatta, having packed away his lodging, taking his bowl and robe, set out for Rājagaha; in due course he arrived at Rājagaha.[38] Then Devadatta, having thrown off his own form, having assumed the form[39] of a young boy clad in a girdle of snakes,[40] became manifest in Prince Ajātasattu’s lap. Then Prince Ajātasattu was afraid, anxious, fearful, alarmed.[41] Then Devadatta spoke thus to Prince Ajātasattu: “Are you, prince, afraid of me?”

“Yes, I am afraid. Who are you?”

“I am Devadatta.”

“If you, honoured sir, are really master Devadatta, please become manifest in your own form.” Then Devadatta, having thrown off the young boy’s form, stood, wearing his outer cloak and (other) robes and carrying his bowl, before Prince Ajātasattu. Then Prince Ajātasattu, greatly pleased with this wonder of psychic power on Devadatta’s part, morning and evening[42] went to wait on him with five hundred chariots, and five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk were brought as a gift of food.[43] Then there arose to Devadatta, overcome by gains, honours and fame,[44] his mind obsessed by them, some such longing as this: “It is I who will lead the Order of monks.”[45] But at the very occurrence of this thought Devadatta declined in his psychic power.[46]


Kd.17.2.2 Now at that time[47] Kakudha[48] the Koliyan,[49] the venerable Moggallāna the Great’s attendant, had just died and had arisen in a certain mind-made[50] body, and such was the reinstatement BD.5.261 of his individuality[51] that it was like two or three Magadhan village fields,[52] yet even with that reinstatement of individuality he injured neither himself nor another. Then Kakudha the young deva approached the venerable Moggallāna the Great; having approached, having greeted the venerable Moggallāna the Great, he stood at a respectful distance. As he was standing at a respectful distance, the young deva Kakudha spoke thus to the venerable Moggallāna the Great:

“To Devadatta, honoured sir, overcome by gains, honours and fame, his mind obsessed by them, some such longing as this arose: ‘It is I who will lead the Order of monks’. But, honoured sir, at the very occurrence of this thought Devadatta declined in his psychic power.” Thus spoke Kakudha the young deva. Having spoken thus, having greeted the venerable Moggallāna the Great, keeping his right side towards him he vanished then and there. Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great approached the Lord; Vin.2.186 having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Moggallāna the Great spoke thus to the Lord:

“Kakudha the Koliyan, Lord, my attendant, has just died and has arisen in a certain mind-made body … Then Kakudha the young deva approached me … keeping his right side towards me, he vanished then and there.”

“But, Moggallāna, does Kakudha the young deva so compass your mind with his mind for you to know that whatever Kakudha the young deva says, all that is so and not otherwise?”

“Lord, Kakudha the young deva so compasses my mind with his mind for me to know that whatever Kakudha the young deva says, all that is so and not otherwise.”

“Mind what you say, Moggallāna, mind what you say,[53] Moggallāna. This foolish man[54] will now betray himself, by himself.

On the five teachers

Kd.17.2.3 “Moggallāna, these five teachers are found in the world.[55] What five?

BD.5.262 “This is a case, Moggallāna, when some teacher, not pure in moral habit, pretends ‘I am pure in moral habit,’ and he says, ‘My moral habit is pure, clean, untarnished.’ Disciples know this about him: ‘This worthy teacher, not pure in moral habit pretends … untarnished.’ But they think: ‘If we should tell this to householders, he would not like it, and how could we carry out[56] what he would not like? Moreover he consents to (accept)[57] the requisites of robes, almsfood, lodgings and medicines for the sick. Whatever anyone[58] shall do, even by that shall he be known.’ Moggallāna, disciples protect such a teacher in regard to moral habit and such a teacher expects protection from disciples in regard to moral habit.

Kd.17.2.4 “And again, Moggallāna, this is a case when some teacher, not pure in mode of livelihood, pretends … Vin.2.187 … not pure in teaching of dhamma, pretends … not pure in exposition … not pure in knowledge and vision, pretends … Moggallāna, disciples protect such a teacher in regard to knowledge and vision, and such a teacher expects protection from disciples in regard to knowledge and vision. These, Moggallāna, are the five teachers found in the world.

“But I, Moggallāna, am pure in moral habit, I acknowledge that I am pure in moral habit, that my moral habit is pure, clean, untarnished. And disciples do not protect me in regard to moral habit and I do not expect protection from disciples in regard to moral habit. I am pure in mode of livelihood … I am pure in dhamma teaching … I am pure in exposition … I am pure in knowledge and vision. I acknowledge that I am pure in knowledge and vision, that my knowledge and vision are pure, clean, untarnished. And disciples do not protect me in regard to knowledge and vision, and I do not expect protection from disciples in regard to knowledge and vision.”


Kd.17.2.5 Then the Lord, having stayed at Kosambī for as long as he found suiting, set out on a tour for Rājagaha. Gradually, walking on tour, he arrived at Rājagaha. The Lord stayed BD.5.263 there at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place.[59] Then several monks approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord:

“Prince Ajātasattu, Lord, goes morning and evening to wait on Devadatta with five hundred chariots, and five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk are brought as a gift of food.”

“Do not, monks, envy Devadatta’s gains and honours and fame. For as long, monks, as Prince Ajātasattu goes morning and evening to wait on Devadatta with five hundred chariots Vin.2.188 and (as long as) five hundred offerings of rice cooked in milk are brought as a gift of food, there may be expected for Devadatta decline in skilled mental states, not growth. It is as if, monks, they were to throw[60] a bladder[61] at a fierce dog’s nose—as that dog, monks, would become much fiercer, even so, monks, for as long as Prince Ajātasattu goes morning and evening … there may be expected for Devadatta decline in skilled mental states, not growth. Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame[62] bring about his own hurt, Devadatta’s gains, honour and fame bring about his destruction. As, monks, a plantain bears fruit to its own hurt, bears fruit to its destruction, even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about his own hurt, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about his destruction. As, monks, a bamboo … a reed bears fruit to its own hurt … even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about … his destruction. As, monks, a she-mule conceives to her own hurt, conceives to her destruction, even so, monks, do Devadatta’s gains, honours and fame bring about … his destruction.

“Truly its fruit the plantain does destroy,
Its fruit the bamboo, its fruit the reed;
So honour does destroy the fool,
Just as its embryo the mule.”[63]

Told is the First Portion for Repeating

Footnotes and references:

1.

Neuter form used here, although the locative is formed as though the word were feminine. Cf. Ja.i.65Ja.i.66, Bv-a.284 which say the Bodhisatta spent the first week after he had gone forth in the mango grove at Anupiyā.

3.

It is more usual to name the exact locality in the place where the Lord was staying.

4.

Cf. Kd.1.7.1 where the same is said of Yasa.

5.

At AN.i.26 he is called chief of those who give sumptuous alms.

6.

Quoted Dhp-a.i.133; AN-a.i.191.

7.

Quoted Dhp-a.i.135Dhp-a.i.136.

8.

Quoted Dhp-a.i.136. Cf. similar list of operations at Ja.i.215 and an other at AN.i.241.

9.

I.e. the grain, or the good grass.

10.

atiharati, as at Nuns’ Bi-Pc.7 (also of grain).

11.

na khīyanti, do not wear away, become exhausted or used up.

12.

Text reads upajāna; Vin-a.1274 upajānāhi.

13.

Cf. Dhp-a.i.137. Boys under fifteen had to obtain their parents’ consent for going forth, Vin.1.79, Vin.1.83.

14.

Cf. Vin.3.13; MN.ii.58.

15.

He was, as said at Ud.ii.10, AN-a.i.192, the son of Kālī of the Godhas, see Psalms of the Bretheren p.315, n.2. Bhaddiya’s verses are at Thag.842Thag.865. At AN.i.23 he is called chief among the disciples of high family. AN-a.i.192 says he went forth with Anuruddha.

16.

Cf. Dhp-a.i.137.

17.

Vin-a.1274 says that out of affection for his friend he wanted to say, “I, with you, will go forth,” but he was not able to finish the sentence as the greed for ruling overcame his heart.

18.

For the following incident cf. Dhp-a.i.137f.

19.

See BD.4.501.

21.

See BD.4.501.

23.

See definition of “army” at Vin.4.105.

25.

As at Vin.3.208.

26.

AN-a.i.191 says Bhaddiya attained arahantship in the same year (as he went forth).

27.

At AN.i.23 called chief of monks of deva-sight.

28.

AN-a.i.191 says Devadatta won the eight attainments; and adds that Bhagu and Kimbila attained arahantship later.

29.

As at Ud.ii.10. The following incident, with a summary of the preceding sections, also forms the introductory story to the 10th Jātaka.

30.

Quoted Ud-a.161.

31.

Same quartet of words below, Kd.17.2.1; Kd.17.3.4, Kd.17.3.7.

32.

pannaloma. Cf. lomaṃ pāteti as at Kd.11.6.1.

33.

paradattavutta. Vin-a.1275, MN.i.450, Ud.19 read paradavutto, with variant readings Ud-a.163 says “living on the gifts of others in respect of robes and so on.” MN-a.iii.167 explains by parehi dinnavuttino parato laddhena yāpentā, whose livelihood is given by others, subsisting on what is obtained from another. Woodward, Verses of Uplift, p.24, n.3 says that “such meanings are hardly applicable in the context.” He translates as “lightsome,” following Pali-English Dictionary’s suggestion that parada is “fond of” with vutta “being prepared,” active, alert. I choose “dependent on others,” following the Commentaries, and as balancing his former dependence on those others who guarded him.

34.

Same quartet of words as at MN.i.450, MN.ii.121. MN-a.iii.167 seems to explain the last word, migabhūtena cetasā, as not expecting or hoping for anything.

35.

itibhavābhavataṃ. Here Vin-a.1275 and Ud-a.164 explain bhava and vibhava much as do Snp-a.20, SN-a.iii.295, MN-a.iii.223, and say that one is freed from this state of becoming this or that by means of the four ways. Cf. also fuller explanation at Ud-a.164, the rather different explanation at MN-a.ii.74, and note that Vin-a.1275 says that vibhava and abhava are identical in meaning. This line occurs at Ud.ii.10 and Snp.6. Cf. itibhavābhavakathā at Vin.4.164 and parallel passages mentioned at BD.2.82, n.3.

36.

Read kaṃ for text’s kiṃ.

37.

Cf. Ja.i.185Ja.i.186.

38.

This episode, as far as where Devadatta stands before Ajātasattu, is also told at Dhp-a.i.139.

39.

Cf. Vin.1.3, where Mucalinda assumed the form of a brahmin youth.

40.

Vin-a.1275 says having bound a snake round the hips. Dhp-a.i.139 elaborates that there were four poisonous snakes, i.e. one on each hand and foot; also one hung round the neck, one was made into a coil on the head, and one arranged over one shoulder.

41.

As above, Kd.17.1.6.

42.

As at SN.ii.242.

43.

Cf. Vin.3.15.

44.

As at SN.ii.228f. Cf. Lābhasakkāra Saṃyutta, SN.ii.225SN.ii.244.

45.

Cf. Dhp-a.i.139. At DN.ii.100 Gotama tells Ānanda that this thought does not occur to the Truth-finder.

46.

See E.J. Thomas, Life of Buddha, p.132ff.

47.

This incident to the end of Kd.17.2.4 is also told at AN.iii.122AN.iii.126.

48.

See note at GS.iii.95.

49.

Spelt Koliya above. On this tribe see C.H.I, i.177 and B.C. Law, Tribes in Ancient India, p.290ff.

50.

manomaya, as again at AN.iii.192.

51.

attabhāvapaṭilābha. AN-a.iii.277 explains attabhāva by sarīra, body.

52.

Sizes of these given at AN-a.iii.277.

53.

As at MN.i.502.

54.

I.e. Devadatta.

55.

Sections Kd.17.2.3, Kd.17.2.4 repeated below Kd.17.3.10.

56.

samudācareyyāma, explained at AN-a.iii.278 as katheyyāma, say, speak.

57.

sammannati, Vin-a.1275 explaining as sammāneti, and AN-a.iii.278 as sammānaṃ karoti, he makes or produces honour, i.e. by accepting these gifts.

58.

tumo, explained by Vin-a.1275 as so, he, and by AN-a.iii.278 as esa … eso (variant reading so), this one. Cf. tumo at Snp.890, Snp.908.

59.

Cf. SN.ii.242 for this episode down to the end of the simile of the fierce dog.

60.

bhindeyyuṃ is explained at SN-a.ii.212 by pakkhipeyyuṃ.

61.

pitta. See Morris, Journal of the Pali Text Society 1893, p.4 and Ud-a.65. SN-a.ii.212 explains pitta as that of a bear or a fish.

62.

Cf. SN.ii.241, AN.ii.73 to the end of the verse.

63.

Quoted SN.i.154, Mil.166, Ne.130.

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