Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Kd.10.2.3 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Once upon a time,[1] monks, at Benares Brahmādatta was king of Kāsi; he was rich, wealthy, opulent, of great strength, with many vehicles; he had large territories, full storehouses and granaries. Dīghīti was the name of the king of Kosala. He was poor, of little wealth, of few means, of little strength, with few vehicles, he had (only) small territories, storehouses and granaries that were not full. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having arrayed a fourfold army,[2] marched against Dīghīti, the King of Kosala. Then, monks, Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, heard: ‘They say that Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having arrayed a fourfold army, is marching against me.’ Then, monks, it occurred to Dīghīti, the King of Kosala: ‘Now Brahmādatta, King of Kāsi, is rich, wealthy, opulent … full storehouses and granaries. I am not competent to stand against even one attack of Brahmādatta, King of Kāsi. BD.4.490 Suppose I were to flee from the town beforehand? ‘Then, monks, Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, taking his chief consort, fled from the town beforehand. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, conquering the troops[3] and vehicles and territory and storehouses and granaries of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, lived as the master. Then, monks, Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, set out for Benares with his wife. In due course he arrived at Benares. Monks, Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, dwelt there with his wife in a certain place adjoining Benares in a potter’s house, in disguise, clothed[4] as a wanderer.

Kd.10.2.4 “Then soon, monks, the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, became pregnant. She had a fancy of this kind: she wanted, at sunrise, to see a fourfold army arrayed, armoured, standing on level ground[5] and to drink at the washing of the swords.[6] Then, monks, the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, spoke thus to Dīghīti, the King of Kosala: ‘Sire, I am pregnant; a fancy of this kind has risen in me: I want, at sunrise, to see a fourfold army … and to drink at the washing of the swords.’ He said: ‘Lady, whence is there for us who are in distress a fourfold army arrayed, armoured, standing on level ground and a washing of the swords? ‘She said: ‘If I, sire, do not get a chance (to have my wish) I shall die.’


Kd.10.2.5 “Now at that time, monks, the Brahmin priest of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, was a friend of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala. Vin.1.343 Then, monks, Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, approached the Brahmin priest of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi; having approached, he spoke thus to the Brahmin priest BD.4.491 of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘A lady friend of yours, old dear,[7] is pregnant; a fancy of this kind has risen in her: she wants, at sunrise to see a fourfold army … and to drink at the washing of the swords.’ He said: ‘Well then, sire, let us see the queen too.’ Then, monks, the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, approached the Brahmin priest of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi. Then, monks, that Brahmin priest of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, saw the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, coming in the distance, and seeing her, rising from his seat, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having with joined palms saluted the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, he three times uttered this utterance: ‘Indeed, a king of Kosala is in your womb, indeed, a king of Kosala is in your womb.’ And he said: ‘Do not be distressed, queen, you will get the chance at the time of sunrise to see a fourfold army arrayed, armoured, standing on level ground and to drink at the washing of the swords.’

Kd.10.2.6 “Then, monks, the brahmin priest of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, approached Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi; having approached, he spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘Sire, the signs that are visible are such that tomorrow at the time of sunrise a fourfold army arrayed, armoured, must stand on level ground and the swords must be washed.’ Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, enjoined people, saying: ‘Good sirs, do as the Brahmin priest says.’ So, monks, the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, got the chance at the time of sunrise of seeing a fourfold army arrayed, armoured, standing on level ground, and of drinking at the washing of the swords. Then, monks, the chief consort of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, when the child in her womb had reached maturity, gave birth to a son. They gave him the name of Dīghāvu.[8] Then, monks, soon afterwards Prince Dīghāvu attained years of discretion.[9]

Kd.10.2.7 BD.4.492 “Then, monks, it occurred to Dīghīti, the King of Kosala: ‘This Brahmādatta, King of Kāsi, has done us much mischief; our troops and vehicles and territories and storehouses and granaries have been stolen by him. If he knew about us he would have all three of us put to death. Suppose I should make Prince Dīghāvu live outside the town?’ Then, monks, Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, made Prince Dīghāvu live outside the town. Then, monks, Vin.1.344 Prince Dīghāvu, while living outside the town, soon learnt every craft.


Kd.10.2.8 “Now at that time, monks, the barber of Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, dwelt at (the court of) Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi. The barber of Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, saw Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, with his wife in a certain place adjoining Benares, dwelling in a potter’s house, in disguise, clothed as a wanderer; seeing him, he approached Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi; having approached, he spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘Sire, Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, is dwelling with his wife … clothed as a wanderer’.

Kd.10.2.9 “Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, enjoined the people, saying: ‘Well then, good sirs, bring along Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, with his wife.’ And, monks, these people having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, brought along Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, with his wife. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, enjoined the people, saying: “Well now, good sirs, having bound Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, and his wife with stout cord, their arms pinioned tightly behind their backs,[10] having shaved them bald,[11] having paraded them to a harsh-sounding kettle-drum from street to street, from cross-road to cross-road, having ejected them by the southern gate of the town, having at the south of the town[12] chopped them into four pieces, discard the pieces to the four quarters.” And these people, monks, having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having bound Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, and his wife with stout cord, their arms pinioned tightly behind their backs, having shaved them bald, paraded them with a BD.4.493 harsh-sounding kettle-drum from street to street and from cross-road to cross-road.

Kd.10.2.10 “Then, monks, it occurred to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘It is a long time since I have seen my parents. Suppose now I should see my parents?’ Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, having entered Benares, saw his parents bound with stout cord their arms pinioned tightly behind their backs, shaved bald, parading to a harsh-sounding kettle-drum from street to street, from cross-road to cross-road; and seeing them he approached his parents. Then, monks, Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, saw Prince Dīghāvu coming from afar, and seeing him he spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Do not you, dear Dīghāvu, look far or close for, dear Dīghāvu, Vin.1.345 wrathful moods are not allayed by wrath: wrathful moods, dear Dīghāvu, are allayed by non-wrath.’[13]

Kd.10.2.11 “When he had spoken thus, monks, these people spoke thus to Dīghāti, the King of Kosala: ‘This Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, is mad, he is talking gibberish. Who is Dīghāvu to him that he should speak thus: “Do not you … by non-wrath”?’ He said: ‘I am not mad, good sirs, I am not talking gibberish; what is more, whoever is learned will understand.’ And a second time, monks, … And a third time, monks, did Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, speak thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Do not you, dear Dīghāvu, look far or close … by non-wrath.’ And a third time, monks, did these people speak thus to Dīghāti, the King of Kosala: ‘This Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, is mad …’ And a third time, monks, did Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, speak thus to these people: ‘I am not mad … whoever is learned will understand.’ Then, monks, these people having paraded Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, and his wife from street to street, from cross-road to cross-road, having ejected them by the southern gate, having chopped them into four pieces at the south of the town, having discarded the pieces to the four quarters, and having stationed troops[14] (there), departed.

Kd.10.2.12 “Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, having entered Benares, having brought back strong drink, made the troops[15] drink it. BD.4.494 When these had fallen down, intoxicated, then (Dīghāvu) having collected sticks, having made a funeral pyre, having put his parents’ bodies on to the funeral pyre, having lit it, three times circumambulated the funeral pyre, his palms joined. Now at that time Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, was on an upper terrace of his palace. He saw Prince Dīghāvu, monks, three times circumambulating the funeral pyre, his palms joined, and seeing him it occurred to him: ‘Undoubtedly this man is a relation or a kinsman of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala. Alas, this spells misfortune for me, for no one will tell me what it means.’

Kd.10.2.13 “Then, monks. Prince Dīghāvu, having gone to a jungle, having cried and wept, having dried his tears, having entered Benares, having gone to an elephant stable near the king’s palace, spoke thus to the elephant trainer: ‘I want to learn the craft, teacher.’[16] He said: ‘Well then, my good youngster,[17] learn it.’ Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, rising in the night towards dawn, sang in a sweet voice in the elephant stable and played the lute.[18] And monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, rising in the night towards dawn heard the singing in the sweet voice and the lute-playing in the elephant stable; having heard, he asked the people: ‘Who, good sirs Vin.1.346 , rising in the night towards dawn, was singing in a sweet voice and playing a lute in the elephant stable?’

Kd.10.2.14 “‘Sire, a youngster, a pupil of such and such an elephant trainer, rising in the night towards dawn, was singing in a sweet voice and playing a lute in the elephant stable.’ He said: ‘Well then, good sirs, bring that youngster along.’ And, monks, these people, having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, brought along Prince Dīghāvu. (The king said:) “Did you, my good youngster, rising … sing in a sweet voice and play a lute in the elephant stable?’ ‘Yes, sire,’ he said. ‘Well, then, do you, my good youngster, sing and play the lute (before me).’ And, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, longing for success, sang in BD.4.495 a sweet voice and played the lute. Then, monks, Brahmādatta the King of Kāsi, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Do you, my good youngster, attend on me.’ Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu answered ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi. Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu became an earlier riser than Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, he lay down later, he was a willing servant, eager to please, speaking affectionately.[19] Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, soon established Prince Dīghāvu in a confidential position of trust.

Kd.10.2.15 “Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Well now, good youngster, harness a chariot, I will go out hunting.’ And, monks, Prince Dīghāvu having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having harnessed a chariot, spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘A chariot is harnessed for you, sire; for this you may think it is now the right time.’ Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, mounted the chariot, Prince Dīghāvu drove the chariot, and he drove the chariot in such a manner that the army went by one way and the chariot by another. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having gone far, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Well now, good youngster, unharness the chariot; as I am tired I will lie down.’ And, monks, Prince Dīghāvu having answered ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having unharnessed the chariot, sat down cross-legged on the ground. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, lay down having laid his head on Prince Dīghāvu’s lap, and because he was tired he fell asleep at once.

Kd.10.2.16 “Then, monks, it occurred to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘This Brahmādatta, King of Kāsi, has done us much Vin.1.347 mischief, he has stolen our troops and vehicles and territory and store-houses, and granaries, and he has killed my parents. This could be a time when I could show my wrath,’ and he drew his sword from its sheath. Then, monks, it occurred to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘My father spoke to me thus at the time of his dying: ‘Do not you, dear Dīghāvu, look far or close, for, dear Dīghāvu, wrathful moods are not allayed by wrath: wrathful moods, dear Dīghāvu, are allayed by non-wrath.” BD.4.496 It would not be suitable for me to transgress my father’s words,’ and he replaced his sword in its sheath. And a second time, monks, it occurred to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘This Brahmādatta … when I could show my wrath,’ and he drew his sword from its sheath. And a second time, monks, it occurred to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘My father spoke to me thus … It would not be suitable for me to transgress my father’s words,’ and again he replaced his sword in its sheath. And a third time … and again he replaced his sword in its sheath. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, frightened, agitated, fearful, alarmed, suddenly got up. Then, monks. Prince Dīghāvu spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘Why do you, sire, frightened … suddenly get up? ‘He said: ‘As I was dreaming here, my good youngster, the son of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala, attacked me with a sword. That is why I, frightened … suddenly got up.’

Kd.10.2.17 “Then, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, having stroked the head of Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, with his left hand, having drawn his sword with his right hand, spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘I, sire, am Prince Dīghāvu, that son of Dīghīti, the King of Kosala. You have done us much mischief, our troops, vehicles, territory, storehouses and granaries were stolen by you, and my parents were killed by you. This could be a time when I could show my wrath.’ Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, inclining his head towards Prince Dīghāvu’s feet, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Grant me my life, dear Dīghāvu, grant me my life, dear Dīghāvu.’

“‘How am I able to grant life to a king? It is a king who should grant me life.’

“‘Well then, dear Dīghāvu, you grant me life and I will grant you life.’ Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, and Prince Dīghāvu granted life to one another and they took hold of (one another’s) hands and they made an oath to do (one another) no harm. Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: Vin.1.348 ‘Well then, dear Dīghāvu, harness the chariot; we will go away.’ And, monks, Prince Dīghāvu, having answered, ‘Yes, sire’, in assent to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having harnessed the chariot, spoke thus to Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi: ‘The BD.4.497 chariot is harnessed for you, sire; for this you may think it is now the right time.’ Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, mounted the chariot. Prince Dīghāvu drove the chariot, and he drove the chariot in such a manner that soon it met the army.

Kd.10.2.18 “Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, having entered Benares, having had the ministers and councillors convened, spoke thus: ‘If, good sirs, you should see Prince Dīghāvu, the son of Dīghāti, the King of Kosala, what would you do to him? ‘Some spoke thus: ‘We, sire, would cut off his hands; we, sire, would cut off his feet; we, sire, would cut off his hands and feet; … his ears, … his nose, … his ears and nose, … we, sire, would cut off his head.’ He said: ‘This, good sirs, is Prince Dīghāvu, the son of Dīghāti, the King of Kosala; there is no occasion to do anything (against him); life was granted by him to me and life was granted by me to him.’

Kd.10.2.19 “Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, spoke thus to Prince Dīghāvu: ‘Concerning that, dear Dīghāvu, which your father said to you at the time of dying: “Do not you, dear Dīghāvu, look far or close, for, dear Dīghāvu, wrathful moods are not allayed by wrath: wrathful moods, dear Dīghāvu, are allayed by non-wrath”—what did your father mean?’ He said: ‘Concerning that, sire, which my father said to me at the time of dying—“not far” means: do not bear wrath long. This is what my father said to me, sire, at the time of dying when he said “not far”. Concerning that, sire, which my father said to me at the time of dying—“not close” means: do not hastily break with a friend. This is what my father said to me, sire, at the time of dying when he said “not close”. Concerning that, sire, which my father said to me at the time of dying—“for, dear Dīghāvu, wrathful moods are not allayed by wrath: wrathful moods, dear Dīghāvu, are allayed by non-wrath” means: my parents were killed by a king, but if I were to deprive the king of life those who desired the king’s welfare would deprive me of life and those who desired my welfare would deprive these of life; thus that wrath would not be settled by wrath.[20] But now BD.4.498 that life is granted me by a king and life is granted a king by me, thus is wrath settled by non-wrath. This is what my father said to me, sire, at the time of dying when he said: ‘for, dear Dīghāvu, wrathful moods are not allayed by wrath; wrathful moods, dear Dīghāvu, are allayed by non-wrath’.

Kd.10.2.20 “Then, monks, Brahmādatta, the King of Kāsi, thinking: Vin.1.349 ‘Indeed, it is marvellous, indeed, it is wonderful that this Prince Dīghāvu is so clever that he understands in full the matter which was spoken by his father in brief’, gave back his father’s troops and vehicles and territory and storehouses and granaries, and he gave him his daughter.


“Now, monks, if such is the forbearance and gentleness of kings who wield the sceptre,[21] who wield the sword, herein, monks, let your light shine forth so that you who have gone forth in this dhamma and discipline which are thus well taught[22] may be equally forbearing and gentle.” And a third time[23] the Lord spoke thus to these monks: “Enough, monks; no strife, no quarrels, no contention, no disputing.” And a third time that monk who spoke what was not dhamma spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, let the Lord, the dhamma-master, wait; Lord, let the Lord, unconcerned, live intent on abiding in ease here and now; we will be (held) accountable for this strife, quarrel, contention, disputing.” Then the Lord, thinking: “These foolish men are as though infatuate; it is not easy to persuade them,” rising up from his seat, departed.

The First Portion for Repeating: that on Dīghāvu

Kd.10.3.1 Then the Lord,[24] having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, entered Kosambī for almsfood; having walked for almsfood in Kosambī, bringing back his almsbowl after his meal, having packed away his lodging, taking his bowl and robe and standing in the midst of the Order,[25] he spoke these verses:

BD.4.499

“When all[26] in chorus bawl, none feels a fool,
nor though the Order is divided, thinks otherwise.

With[27] wandering wits the wiseacres range all the held of talk;
with mouths agape to full extent, what leads them on they know not.

They who[28] (in thought) belabour this: That man has me abused, has hurt,
has worsted me, has me despoiled: in these wrath’s not allayed.

They who do not belabour this: That man has me abused, has hurt,
has worsted me, has me despoiled: in them wrath is allayed.

Nay, not by wrath are wrathful moods allayed here (and) at any time,
but by not-wrath are they allayed: this is an (ageless) endless rule.

People do not discern that here we straitened are (in life, in time),[29]
but they who herein do discern, thereby their quarrels are allayed. Vin.1.350

Ruffians who maim and kill, steal cattle, steeds and wealth, who plunder realms—
for these is concord. Why should there not be for you?

If one find[30] friend with whom to fare rapt in the well-abiding, apt,
surmounting dangers one and all, with joy fare with him mindfully.

BD.4.500 Finding none apt[31] with whom to fare, None in the well-abiding rapt,
As rājā quits the conquered realm, fare lonely as bull-elephant in elephant jungle.

Better[32] the faring of one alone, there is no companionship with the foolish,
fare lonely, unconcerned, working no evil, as bull-elephant in elephant-jungle.”

Footnotes and references:

1.

Cf. Ja.iii.211, Ja.iii.487ff.

2.

See Vin.4.105 (BD.2.375 and notes).

3.

bala, as above where rendered “strength”.

4.

channa can also mean concealed.

5.

subhummiyaṃ ṭhitaṃ. Cf. MN-a.ii.97 subhūmiyan ti samabhūmiyaṃ.

6.

khaggānaṃ dhovanaṃ pātuṃ, to drink the water with which swords were washed. Cf. Mahāvaṃsa xxii.42–Mahāvaṃsa xxii.45 where another pregnant queen “longed to drink (the water) that had served to cleanse the sword with which the head of the first warrior among king Eḷāra’s warriors had been cut off”. (Geiger’s translation). F.L. Woodward refers me to J. Abbott, Keys of Power, O.U.P., p.168, “The sword of the Marātha Sivaji, preserved at Satāra, has power, and water in which it has been washed is a cure for obstructed delivery”. See also T.R. Glover, Springs of Hellas, C.U.P., 1945, p.7, quoting Seneca, Naturales quaestiones iii.2, “‘There are waters wholesome, useful, and waters deadly and putrid … some remove barrenness’—a belief found in other authors (Athenaeus, p.41f., quotes Theophrastus, History of Plants, to this effect).”

7.

samma.

8.

Some manuscripts spell Dīghāyu. The meaning, in both spellings, is longevity, “Longeval” (Vinaya Texts ii.297). Dīghāvu’s story is given at Ja.iii.211f., Ja.iii.487ff.; at Ja.iii.490 he is identified with the Bodhisatta. Dhp.109 is said to have been spoken on his account, Dhp-a.ii.235.

9.

As at Vin.1.269. In the Jātaka this age is usually reckoned to be about sixteen.

10.

Cf. DN.i.245.

11.

Cf. DN.i.98.

12.

This whole passage is stock; cf. AN.ii.241, SN.ii.128, SN.iv.344.

13.

Cf. Dhp.5. The meaning is explained at Kd.10.2.19.

14.

gumba.

15.

gumbiye.

16.

ācariya, teacher or trainer.

17.

bhaṇe māṇavaka.

18.

He may have learnt to sing and play when he learnt “every craft” (end of Kd.10.2.7), or he may have learnt these accomplishments as part of the elephant craft, elephants being notoriously fond of music.

19.

As at SN.iii.113.

20.

Cf. similar sentiments at SN.i.85, Dhp.256–Dhp.257.

21.

ādinna-daṇḍa, take up a stick. Daṇḍa also means punishment. So the phrase may mean, instead of “scepter”, “who use violence” or “who mete out punishment”.

22.

Cf. Kd.5.4.3.

23.

First and second times occur at Kd.10.2.2.

24.

Cf. MN.iii.153.

25.

Omitted at MN.iii.153.

26.

All these lines occur at MN.iii.154, Ja.iii.488.

27.

This couplet also at Ud.v.9. I borrow Woodward’s translation of it.

28.

This verse and the next three also occur at Dhp.3–Dhp.6 = Ja.iii.212.

29.

This line is also at Thag.275.

30.

This verse is also at Dhp.328 = Snp.45. I borrow E.M. Hare’s translation.

31.

This verse = Dhp.329 = Snp.46 (except for Sutta Nipāta last line).

32.

This verse = Dhp.330.

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