Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On root medicince, etc.

Kd.6.3.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of roots as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: Vin.1.201I allow you, monks, it there is a reason, to make use of roots as medicines: turmeric,[1] ginger, orris root, white orris root, garlic, black hellebore, khus-khus, nut-grass, or whatever other roots there are that are medicines, if they do not serve, among solid foods, as a solid food, if they do not serve, among soft foods, as a soft food; and having accepted them, to preserve[2] them for as long as life lasts.[3] If there is no reason, there is an offence of wrong-doing for one who makes use of (any of these medicines).


Kd.6.3.2 Now at that time ill monks had need, as medicines, of what was pounded off roots. They told this matter to the Lord. BD.4.272 He said: “I allow you, monks, a (lower) grindstone, a (small) grindstone.[4]


Kd.6.4.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of astringent decoctions as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to make use of astringent decoctions as medicines: astringent decoctions from the nimb-tree, astringent decoctions from the kuṭaja,[5] astringent decoctions from the pakkava,[6] astringent decoctions from the nattamāla,[7] or whatever other astringent decoctions there are that are medicines if they do not serve, among solid foods, as a solid food, if they do not serve, among soft foods, as a soft food; and having accepted them, to preserve them for as long as life lasts. If there is no reason, there is an offence of wrong-doing for any one who makes use of (any of these medicines)”.


Kd.6.5.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of leaves as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to make use of leaves as medicines: nimb-leaves, kuṭaja-leaves, cucumber[8]-leaves, basil[9]-leaves, cotton-tree leaves, or whatever other leaves there are that are medicines if they do not serve … (any of these medicines).[10]


Kd.6.6.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of fruits as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason to make use of fruits as medicines: vilaṅga,[11] pepper,[12] black pepper,[13] yellow myrobalan,[14] beleric BD.4.273 myrobalan,[15] emblic myrobalan, goṭha-fruit[16] or whatever other fruits there are that are medicines if they do not serve … (any of these medicines).


Kd.6.7.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of resins as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to make use of resins as medicines: hiṅgu,[17] hiṅgu-resin, hiṅgu-gum,[18] gum,[19] gum-patti,[20] Vin.1.202 gum-paṇṇī, or whatever other resins there are that are medicines if they do not serve … (any of these medicines)”.[21]


Kd.6.8.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of salts as medicines. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to make use of salts as medicines: sea(-salt), black salt,[22] rock-salt,[23] culinary-salt, red-salt[24] or whatever other salts there are that are medicines if they do not serve, among solid foods, as a solid food, if they do not serve, among soft foods, as a soft food; and having accepted them, to preserve them for as long as life lasts. If there is no reason, there is an offence of wrong-doing for one who makes use of (any of these medicines).


Kd.6.9.1 Now at that time[25] the venerable Belaṭṭhasīsa,[26] the venerable BD.4.274 Ānanda’s preceptor, had an affliction of thick scabs.[27] Because of the discharge his robes stuck to his body. Monks, having repeatedly moistened these with water, loosened them. As the Lord was touring the lodgings he saw these monks loosening the robes, having repeatedly moistened them with water; and seeing (this) he approached these monks; having approached, he spoke thus to these monks: “What, monks, is this monk’s affliction?”

“Lord, this venerable one has an affliction of thick scabs; because of the discharge, his robes stick to his body; having repeatedly moistened them with water, we are loosening them.”

Kd.6.9.2 Then the Lord in this connection having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow, monks, for one who has itch[28] or a small boil[29] or a running sore[30] or an affliction of thick scabs[31] or for one whose body smells nasty, chunams as medicines; for one who is not ill dung, clay, boiled colouring matter.[32] I allow you, monks, a pestle and mortar.[33]


Kd.6.10.1 Now at that time ill monks had need of sifted chunams as medicines … “I allow you, monks, a chunam-sifter.[34]” They had need of very fine ones. “I allow you, monks, a cloth sifter.


Kd.6.10.2 Now at that time a certain monk had an non-human affliction. Teachers and preceptors, although nursing him, were unable to get him well. He, having gone to the swine’s slaughter-place, ate raw flesh and drank raw blood, and his non-human affliction subsided.[35] They told this matter to the Lord. Vin.1.203 He said: “I allow, monks, when one has a non-human affliction, raw flesh and raw blood.


Kd.6.11.1 BD.4.275 Now at that time a certain monk came to have an illness affecting his eyes. Having taken hold of that monk, they made him go out to ease himself. As the Lord was touring the lodgings, he saw those monks who, having taken hold of that monk, were making him go out to ease himself; seeing (this) he approached those monks; having approached, he spoke thus to those monks:

“What, monks, is this monk’s affliction?”

Kd.6.11.2 “Lord, this venerable one has an illness affecting his eyes; we, having taken hold of him, are making him go out to ease himself.” Then the Lord in this connection having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

I allow, monks, these ointments[36]: black collyrium,[37] rasa-ointment,[38] sota-ointment,[39] yellow-ochre,[40] lamp-black.”[41] They had need of ointment-powders.[42] … “I allow, monks, the use of sandal-wood, rosebay, black gum,[43] tālīsa,[44] nut-grass.[45]


Kd.6.12.1 Now at that time monks used to place pulverised ointments in small bowls and saucers. They were littered with powdered grass and dust … “I allow, monks, an ointment-box.”[46] Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of ointment-boxes, made of gold, made of silver. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses”. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, various kinds of ointment-boxes should not be used. Whoever should use (one), there is an offence of BD.4.276 wrong-doing. I allow (them), monks, (to be) made of bone,[47] made of reed, made of bamboo, made of a piece of stick, made of lac, made of crystal,[48] made of copper, made of the centre of a conch-shell.


Kd.6.12.2 Now at that time ointment-boxes were not covered. They were littered with powdered grass and dust … “I allow, monks, a lid.[49] A lid fell off … “I allow you, monks, having tied it with thread, to tie it to the ointment-box.” An ointment-box split open.[50] … “I allow you, monks, to sew it round with thread.


Kd.6.12.3 Now at that time monks put on ointment with (their) fingers. (Their) eyes became painful … “I allow, monks, an ointment-stick.[51] Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of ointment-sticks, made of gold, made of silver. Vin.1.204 People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” … “Monks, various kinds of ointment-sticks should not be used.[52] Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow (them), monks, (to be) made of bone … made of the centre of a conch-shell.”


Kd.6.12.4 Now at that time an ointment-stick, falling to the ground, became rough … “I allow, monks, a case for the sticks.”[53] Now at that time monks carried about ointment-boxes and ointment-sticks in their hands … “I allow, monks, a bag for the ointment-box.” There was no strap at the edge[54]BD.4.277I allow, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying[55].”

Footnotes and references:

1.

This list of roots also given at Vin.4.35. For notes, see BD.2.227f. Cf. also Vin-a.833.

2.

pariharituṃ.

3.

Passage quoted at Vin-a.833. See BD.2.330, n.3, on this expression, “as long as life lasts”. The medicines mentioned in Bu-NP.23 may, unlike the root medicines which may be stored for life, be stored for at most seven days.

4.

nisada nisadapota. Vin-a.1090 says piṃsanasilā ca piṃsanapotako ca, a stone for grinding and a small (thing) for grinding. This latter must be a pounder to use in the hand on the larger grindstone.

5.

Wrightia antidysenterica or Nericum antidysentericum (Pali-English Dictionary), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Watt’s Commercial Products of India).

6.

A creeper, Vin-a.1090 (reading paggava as at Ja.ii.105, where it is called vallī, a creeping plant).

7.

At Vin-a.1090 called karañja which, according to Pali-English Dictionary, is the tree Pongamia glabra.

8.

paṭola, a kind of cucumber, Trichosanthes Dioeca.

9.

sulasī; cf. Sanskrit surasī, given by Böhtlingk-Roth as “basilienkraut”. The word translated as “basil” at BD.2.228 is ajjuka.

10.

Quoted at Vin-a.835.

11.

Erycibe paniculata.

12.

pippala, see Vinaya Texts ii.46, n.6.

13.

marica.

14.

harītaka, cf. BD.3.245, n.4 (Vin.4.259).

15.

vibhītaka, also at Ja.vi.529. Watt, Commercial Products of India, under Terminalia belerica, says “it has various medicinal qualities ascribed to it; and the oil expressed from the seed is used by the Natives”. Under Phyllanthus emblica Watt says “the fresh ripe fruits are largely employed as astringent and laxative medicines”.

16.

goṭhaphala. Pali-English Dictionary says “medicinal seed”. Monier Williams, under gotravṛksha compares to dhanvana. This he gives as the “plant Alhagi Maurorum which grows in a dry soil”.

17.

Assafoetida.

18.

hingu-sipāṭikā. Pali-English Dictionary says that this is a sipāṭikā (pod pericarp) yielding gum. Monier Williams says it is the same as vaṃsa-pattrī. This he calls a “particular kind of grass = nāḍī-hiṅgu”. Vin-a.1090 says that hiṅgu. hiṅgu-jatu, hiṅgu-sipāṭikā are just kinds of hiṅgu.

19.

taka, a medicinal gum.

20.

Vin-a.1090 says that taka and these two varieties are all of them kinds of lac or resin.

21.

Quoted at Vin-a.835.

22.

Vin-a.1090 calls this common salt.

23.

This is white in colour, Vin-a.1090.

24.

Vin-a.1090: cooked together with all kinds of ingredients, it is red in colour.

25.

Opening part of this story = Vin.1.295.

28.

At Vin.4.172 (BD.3.97) “itch-cloth” is defined as: for covering anyone who has any of these afflictions.

29.

At Vin.4.172 (BD.3.97) “itch-cloth” is defined as: for covering anyone who has any of these afflictions.

30.

At Vin.4.172 (BD.3.97) “itch-cloth” is defined as: for covering anyone who has any of these afflictions.

31.

At Vin.4.172 (BD.3.97) “itch-cloth” is defined as: for covering anyone who has any of these afflictions.

32.

rajana-nipakka. Vin-a.1090 says rajana-kasaṭa, acrid colouring matter or dye-stuff. But kasaṭa can also mean dregs or leavings, and this sense is more likely here. Vin-a.1090 explains: “having ground ordinary chunam, having moistened it with water, one may wash (or bathe with it).” These three things were for applying to the body and not for taking as a medicine.

33.

udukkhala musala, different from the grinding stones of Kd.6.3.2.

34.

cuṇṇacālanī.

35.

There seems at Vin-a.1090 the idea that a non-human being “possessed” the monk. For it explains that it was not the monk who ate and drank the raw things, but the non-human being; on its departing, his (the monk’s) non-human affliction is said to have subsided.

36.

añjana is here a generic term, as is clear from the first three to be specified: kāḷañjana rasañjana sotañjana. Vin-a.1090 also says of añjana, “comprising all”.

37.

Vin-a.1090 says “one kind of añjana, cooked with all ingredients”.

38.

Vin-a.1090 says “made from a variety of ingredients”. Böhtlingk-Roth say it is made with vitriol.

39.

Vin-a.1090–91 says “an ointment originating in rivers and streams”. Böhtlingk-Roth say it is made with antimony.

40.

geruka, or red chalk.

41.

kapalla taken from the flame of a lamp, Vin-a.1091. Pali-English Dictionary says kapalla is here in error for kajjala.

42.

añjanupapisana, as at Vin.2.112.

43.

See GS.v.17, n.1.

44.

Flacourtia cataphracta.

45.

As in Kd.6.3.1, and Vin.4.35. See BD.2.228, n.2.

46.

añjanī. See BD.3.89, n.2. Allowed also at Vin.2.135.

47.

At Vin.4.167 these three materials are allowed for making needle-cases. “Bone” is there defined as whatever is bone. But Vin-a.1091 says “made of bone” means of every kind of bone with the exception of human bone. This list recurs at Vin.2.117.

48.

Pali-English Dictionary suggests that phalamaya “stands in all probability for phalikamaya”.

49.

Allowed also at Vin.2.122 for a well.

50.

Reading phalati with Sinhalese edition instead of Oldenberg’s nipalati.

51.

Allowed again, with ointment-box, at Vin.2.135. At Vin.4.168 there is “no offence” if an ointment-stick is used as a needle-case.

52.

Cf. above Kd.6.12.1.

53.

Vin-a.1091 says, “because they put down the sticks, I allow a piece of hollow wood or a bag for them”.

54.

aṃsa-bandhaka (variant readings vadhaka, vaddhaka). Vin-a.1091 says this is for (or, on) the ointment-bag. The same thing allowed at Vin.2.114 for a bowl. At Kd.6.13.2 there is a similar “allowance” for a bag for tubes for steam. Thus the monks had different bags for different portable articles. It would seem as if each bag had a strap attached to its edge, rather than that monk, carried the bags by means of straps going over the shoulder (also called aṃsa).

55.

bandhana-suttaka, probably for tying the box to the strap. Cf. Vin.2.114.