Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.11.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

य॒ज्ञस्य॑ के॒तुं प्र॑थ॒मं पु॒रोहि॑तम॒ग्निं नर॑स्त्रिषध॒स्थे समी॑धिरे । इन्द्रे॑ण दे॒वैः स॒रथं॒ स ब॒र्हिषि॒ सीद॒न्नि होता॑ य॒जथा॑य सु॒क्रतु॑: ॥
यज्ञस्य केतुं प्रथमं पुरोहितमग्निं नरस्त्रिषधस्थे समीधिरे । इन्द्रेण देवैः सरथं स बर्हिषि सीदन्नि होता यजथाय सुक्रतुः ॥
yajñasya ketum prathamam purohitam agniṃ naras triṣadhasthe sam īdhire | indreṇa devaiḥ sarathaṃ sa barhiṣi sīdan ni hotā yajathāya sukratuḥ ||

English translation:

“The priests have first kindled, in three plural ces, Agni, the banner of sacrifice, the family priests, (riding) in the same car with Indra and the gods; he, the performer of pious acts, the invoker (of the gods), has sat down on the sacred grass for the (celebration of the) rite.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Have first kindled in three plural ces: triṣadhasthe samīdhire, i.e. as the three fires, the gārhapatya, āhavanīya and dakṣiṇā


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): sutambhara ātreyaḥ [sutambhara ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): jagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

य॒ज्ञस्य॑ । के॒तुम् । प्र॒थ॒मम् । पु॒रःऽहि॑तम् । अ॒ग्निम् । नरः॑ । त्रि॒ऽस॒ध॒स्थे । सम् । ई॒धि॒रे॒ । इन्द्रे॑ण । दे॒वैः । स॒रथ॑म् । सः । ब॒र्हिषि॑ । सीद॑त् । नि । होता॑ । य॒जथा॑य । सु॒ऽक्रतुः॑ ॥
यज्ञस्य । केतुम् । प्रथमम् । पुरःहितम् । अग्निम् । नरः । त्रिसधस्थे । सम् । ईधिरे । इन्द्रेण । देवैः । सरथम् । सः । बर्हिषि । सीदत् । नि । होता । यजथाय । सुक्रतुः ॥
yajñasya | ketum | prathamam | puraḥ-hitam | agnim | naraḥ | tri-sadhasthe | sam | īdhire | indreṇa | devaiḥ | saratham | saḥ | barhiṣi | sīdat | ni | hotā | yajathāya | su-kratuḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.11.2 English analysis of grammar]

yajñasya < yajña

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“yajña; religious ceremony; Vishnu; yajña [word]; Yajña; Shiva.”

ketum < ketu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“banner; ketu; sunbeam; enemy; sign; Premna spinosa Roxb.; comet; signal; signal; luminosity.”

prathamam < prathama

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

purohitam < purohita

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Purohita; purohita [word].”

agniṃ < agnim < agni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

naras < naraḥ < nṛ

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“man; man; nṛ [word]; crew; masculine.”

triṣadhasthe < triṣadhastha

[noun], locative, singular, masculine



“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

īdhire < indh

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“kindle; ignite; set ablaze.”

indreṇa < indra

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

devaiḥ < deva

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

sarathaṃ < sa


“with; little; together.”

sarathaṃ < ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”



“with; little; together.”

barhiṣi < barhis

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“Barhis; barhis [word].”

sīdan < sīdat < sad

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”



“back; down.”

hotā < hotṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


yajathāya < yajatha

[noun], dative, singular, masculine


sukratuḥ < sukratu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


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