Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.3.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

देव॑ बर्हि॒र्वर्ध॑मानं सु॒वीरं॑ स्ती॒र्णं रा॒ये सु॒भरं॒ वेद्य॒स्याम् । घृ॒तेना॒क्तं व॑सवः सीदते॒दं विश्वे॑ देवा आदित्या य॒ज्ञिया॑सः ॥
देव बर्हिर्वर्धमानं सुवीरं स्तीर्णं राये सुभरं वेद्यस्याम् । घृतेनाक्तं वसवः सीदतेदं विश्वे देवा आदित्या यज्ञियासः ॥
deva barhir vardhamānaṃ suvīraṃ stīrṇaṃ rāye subharaṃ vedy asyām | ghṛtenāktaṃ vasavaḥ sīdatedaṃ viśve devā ādityā yajñiyāsaḥ ||

English translation:

“Divine grass, let the Vasus, the VIśvedevas, the adorable Āditya, sit upon this flourishing, invigrating, well-grown, sacred grass, strewn for the sakeof wealth upon this altar, and sprinkled with butter.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Divine grass: the barhis, or a person nification of Agni


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

देव॑ । ब॒र्हिः॒ । वर्ध॑मानम् । सु॒ऽवीर॑म् । स्ती॒र्णम् । रा॒ये । सु॒ऽभर॑म् । वेदी॒ इति॑ । अ॒स्याम् । घृ॒तेन॑ । अ॒क्तम् । व॒स॒वः॒ । सी॒द॒त॒ । इ॒दम् । विश्वे॑ । दे॒वाः॒ । आ॒दि॒त्याः॒ । य॒ज्ञिया॑सः ॥
देव । बर्हिः । वर्धमानम् । सुवीरम् । स्तीर्णम् । राये । सुभरम् । वेदी इति । अस्याम् । घृतेन । अक्तम् । वसवः । सीदत । इदम् । विश्वे । देवाः । आदित्याः । यज्ञियासः ॥
deva | barhiḥ | vardhamānam | su-vīram | stīrṇam | rāye | su-bharam | vedī iti | asyām | ghṛtena | aktam | vasavaḥ | sīdata | idam | viśve | devāḥ | ādityāḥ | yajñiyāsaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.3.4 English analysis of grammar]


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

barhir < barhiḥ < barhis

[noun], vocative, singular, neuter

“Barhis; barhis [word].”

vardhamānaṃ < vardhamānam < vṛdh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“increase; grow; vṛdh; increase; succeed; strengthen; grow up; spread.”

suvīraṃ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suvīraṃ < vīram < vīra

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“hero; man; Vīra; vīra; vīra [word]; Vīra.”

stīrṇaṃ < stīrṇam < stṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“spread; kill; lay; cover.”

rāye < rai

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“wealth; possession; rai [word]; gold.”

subharaṃ < subharam < subhara

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

vedy < vedī < vedi

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“Vedi; pedestal.”

asyām < idam

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

ghṛtenāktaṃ < ghṛtena < ghṛta

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“ghee; fat.”

ghṛtenāktaṃ < aktam < añj

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“smear; anoint; mix; color.”

vasavaḥ < vasu

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“Vasu; Vasu; eight; vas; audbhida; Deva; sun; pāṃśuja; Agni.”

sīdatedaṃ < sīdata < sad

[verb], plural, Present imperative

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”

sīdatedaṃ < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

viśve < viśva

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

devā < devāḥ < deva

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

ādityā < ādityāḥ < āditya

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“sun; Aditya; Surya; āditya [word].”

yajñiyāsaḥ < yajñiya

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“sacrificial; divine; devoted.”

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