Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.3.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ई॒ळि॒तो अ॑ग्ने॒ मन॑सा नो॒ अर्ह॑न्दे॒वान्य॑क्षि॒ मानु॑षा॒त्पूर्वो॑ अ॒द्य । स आ व॑ह म॒रुतां॒ शर्धो॒ अच्यु॑त॒मिन्द्रं॑ नरो बर्हि॒षदं॑ यजध्वम् ॥
ईळितो अग्ने मनसा नो अर्हन्देवान्यक्षि मानुषात्पूर्वो अद्य । स आ वह मरुतां शर्धो अच्युतमिन्द्रं नरो बर्हिषदं यजध्वम् ॥
īḻito agne manasā no arhan devān yakṣi mānuṣāt pūrvo adya | sa ā vaha marutāṃ śardho acyutam indraṃ naro barhiṣadaṃ yajadhvam ||

English translation:

Agni, who are the venerable īḷita, do you, with mind favourably disposed towards us, offer today sacrifice to the gods, before the human (ministrant priest) as such, bring hither the company of the Maruts, the undecaying Indra, to whom, seated on the sacred grass, do you priests offer worship.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ई॒ळि॒तः । अ॒ग्ने॒ । मन॑सा । नः॒ । अर्ह॑न् । दे॒वान् । य॒क्षि॒ । मानु॑षात् । पूर्वः॑ । अ॒द्य । सः । आ । व॒ह॒ । म॒रुता॑म् । शर्धः॑ । अच्यु॑तम् । इन्द्र॑म् । न॒रः॒ । ब॒र्हि॒ऽसद॑म् । य॒ज॒ध्व॒म् ॥
ईळितः । अग्ने । मनसा । नः । अर्हन् । देवान् । यक्षि । मानुषात् । पूर्वः । अद्य । सः । आ । वह । मरुताम् । शर्धः । अच्युतम् । इन्द्रम् । नरः । बर्हिसदम् । यजध्वम् ॥
īḷitaḥ | agne | manasā | naḥ | arhan | devān | yakṣi | mānuṣāt | pūrvaḥ | adya | saḥ | ā | vaha | marutām | śardhaḥ | acyutam | indram | naraḥ | barhi-sadam | yajadhvam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.3.3 English analysis of grammar]

īḍito < īḍitaḥ < īḍ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“praise; invite; raise.”

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

manasā < manas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“mind; Manas; purpose; idea; attention; heart; decision; manas [word]; manas [indecl.]; spirit; temper; intelligence.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

arhan < arh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“should; may; rate; can; can; equal; necessitate.”

devān < deva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

yakṣi < yaj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”

mānuṣāt < mānuṣa

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine


pūrvo < pūrvaḥ < pūrva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“aforesaid(a); antecedent; previous(a); first; eastern; former(a); pūrva [word]; age-old; anterior; bygone; fore(a); predictive; firstborn; easterly; instrumental.”



“now; today; then; nowadays; adya [word].”

sa < saḥ < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

vaha < vah

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“transport; bring; marry; run; drive; vāhay; drive; run; pull; nirvāpay; blow; transport; discharge; assume; remove.”

marutāṃ < marutām < marut

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“Marut; vāta; wind; Vayu.”

śardho < śardhaḥ < śardhas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter


acyutam < acyuta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“firm; regular; permanent; immovable; unchanging.”

indraṃ < indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

naro < naraḥ < nṛ

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“man; man; nṛ [word]; crew; masculine.”

barhiṣadaṃ < barhiṣadam < barhiṣad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

yajadhvam < yaj

[verb], plural, Present imperative

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”

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