Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.61.6

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒स्मा इदु॒ त्वष्टा॑ तक्ष॒द्वज्रं॒ स्वप॑स्तमं स्व॒र्यं१॒॑ रणा॑य । वृ॒त्रस्य॑ चिद्वि॒दद्येन॒ मर्म॑ तु॒जन्नीशा॑नस्तुज॒ता कि॑ये॒धाः ॥
अस्मा इदु त्वष्टा तक्षद्वज्रं स्वपस्तमं स्वर्यं रणाय । वृत्रस्य चिद्विदद्येन मर्म तुजन्नीशानस्तुजता कियेधाः ॥
asmā id u tvaṣṭā takṣad vajraṃ svapastamaṃ svaryaṃ raṇāya | vṛtrasya cid vidad yena marma tujann īśānas tujatā kiyedhāḥ ||

English translation:

“For that Indra, verily Tvaṣṭā sharpened the well-acting, sure-aimed thunderbolt for the battle, with which fatal (weapon) the foe-subduing and mighty sovereign severed the limbs of Vṛtra.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): nodhā gautamaḥ [nodhas gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): paṅktiḥ ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒स्मै । इत् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । त्वष्टा॑ । त॒क्ष॒त् । वज्र॑म् । स्वपः॑ऽतमम् । स्व॒र्य॑म् । रणा॑य । वृ॒त्रस्य॑ । चि॒त् । वि॒दत् । येन॑ । मर्म॑ । तु॒जन् । ईशा॑नः । तु॒ज॒ता । कि॒ये॒धाः ॥
अस्मै । इत् । ऊँ इति । त्वष्टा । तक्षत् । वज्रम् । स्वपःतमम् । स्वर्यम् । रणाय । वृत्रस्य । चित् । विदत् । येन । मर्म । तुजन् । ईशानः । तुजता । कियेधाः ॥
asmai | it | oṃ | iti | tvaṣṭā | takṣat | vajram | svapaḥ-tamam | svaryam | raṇāya | vṛtrasya | cit | vidat | yena | marma | tujan | īśānaḥ | tujatā | kiyedhāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.61.6 English analysis of grammar]

asmā < asmai < idam

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”



“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

tvaṣṭā < tvaṣṭṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Tvaṣṭṛ; Viśvakarman; sun.”

takṣad < takṣat < takṣ

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“produce; shape; fashion; chisel; invent.”

vajraṃ < vajram < vajra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“vajra; Vajra; vajra; vajra; lightning; abhra; vajramūṣā; diamond; vajra [word]; vajrakapāṭa; vajra; vaikrānta.”

svapastamaṃ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

svapastamaṃ < apastamam < apastama

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

svaryaṃ < svaryam < svarya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“good for the voice.”

raṇāya < raṇa

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“battle; fight; pleasure; joy; war; combat.”

vṛtrasya < vṛtra

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Vṛtra; vṛtra [word].”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

vidad < vidat < vid

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

yena < yad

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

marma < marman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“marman; secret; secret; mystery; vulnerability.”

tujann < tujan < tuj

[verb noun], nominative, singular


īśānas < īśānaḥ < īś

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“govern; command; master; dominate; can; reign; control; own.”

tujatā < tuj

[verb noun], instrumental, singular


kiyedhāḥ < kiyedhā

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

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