Parinirvana, Parinirvāṇa, Parinibbana, Parinibbāna: 18 definitions


Parinirvana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Parinirvan.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Theravada glossary
Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms

# Total Unbinding; the complete cessation of the khandhas that occurs upon the death of an arahant. # parisa [parisaa]: Following; assembly. The four groups of the Buddhas following that include monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen. Compare sangha. See bhikkhu, bhikkhuni, upasaka/upasika.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N (Definitive disappearance of all mental defilements). As soon as nibbana (see this word) is experienced without the slightest attachment remaining , physical and mental phenomena do no longer have reasons to reappear; This is parinibbana.

See also: parinibbana

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण) refers to “(entering) complete nirvāṇa”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra.—Accordingly, “Having reached Buddhahood, the Bodhisattva would be led straightaway to entering complete Nirvāṇa (parinirvāṇa), without any residual conditioning, where he would be able to do nothing more for gods or for men. Realizing his own good, he would be sacrificing the second part of his ideal, that of working for the good and happiness of an infinite number of beings. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण) refers to “extinction”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “What then is the extinction of the Bodhisattva? Extinction (parinirvāṇa) is the unconditioned. Even though the Bodhisattva never makes even a small bad action, he still enters into grasping for the good actions. Since the Bodhisattva makes all composite things as belonging to body, speech, and mind, he, having investigated them, transforms them into omniscience. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Buddhism glossary
Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

Not death, but perfect rest, i.e. the perfection of all virtues and the elimination of all evils.. Also a release from the suffering of transmigration and an entry to a state of fullest joy.

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

The Parinirvāṇa of the Buddha is described in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta. Because of its attention to detail, this Theravada sutta, though first committed to writing hundreds of years after his death, has been resorted to as the principal source of reference in most standard studies of the Buddha's life. In some Mahāyāna scriptures, notably the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, Parinirvāṇa is explicated as the realm of the eternal true Self of the Buddha.

Etymology: Parinirvāṇa (Pali: Parinibbana; traditional Chinese: 般涅槃; pinyin: Bānnièpán).

Source: China Buddhism Encyclopedia: Buddhism

1) Parinirvāṇa; That which is beyond (para) Nirvāṇa. The Buddha was said to have attained Nirvāṇa under the Bodhi tree, and parinirvāṇa when he “died”, thus complete extinction of or release from all Attachment to the Form. In technical Buddhism it refers to complete cessation, non-residual Nirvāṇa, the passing away of Buddhas.

2) Parinirvāṇa (yongs su mya ngan las 'das). The expression "final nirvāṇa" (Skt. parinirvāṇa) refers specifically to the passing away of buddhas, such as Śākyamuni, and it is considered to be the last of the twelve principal deeds demonstrated by the buddha-body of emanation, exemplified by the death of Śākyamuni at Kuśinigara. In general, nirvāṇa is the state of total cessation of all sufferings, dissonant mental states and also of the psychological tendencies and imprints which cause our dualistic perceptions and lead sentient beings to a state of confusion within cyclic existence.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parinirvāṇa.—(EI 8), the death of the Buddha. Note: parinirvāṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

parinibbāna : (nt.) final release from transmigration; death after the last life-span of an arahant.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parinibbāna, (nt.) (pari+nibbāna) “complete Nibbāna” in two meanings: 1. complete extinction of khandhalife; i.e. all possibility of such life & its rebirth, final release from (the misery of) rebirth and transmigration, death (after the last life-span of an Arahant). This is the so-called “an-upādi-sesa Parinibbāna, ” or “extinction with no rebirth-substratum left. ” — 2. release from cravings & attachment to life, emancipation (in this life) with the assurance of final death; freedom of spirit, calm, perfect well-being or peace of soul. This is the so-called “sa-upādisesa-P. , ” or “extinction (of passion) with some substratum left. ” — The two kinds are distinguished by Bdhgh at DhA. II, 163 as follows: “arahatta-pattito paṭṭhāya kilesa-vaṭṭassa khepitattā sa — upādi — sesena, carima — citta — nirodhena khandhavaṭṭassa khepitattā an-upādi-sesena cā ti dvīhi pi parinibbānehi parinibbutā, an-upādāno viya padīpo apaṇṇattika-bhāvaṃ gatā. ” — 1. D. II, 72 sq. (the famous Mahā-parinibbāna-suttanta or “Book of the Great Decease”); M. III, 127, 128; A. II, 79 (°samaye); III, 409 (°dhamma, contrasted with āpāyika nerayika, cp. DhA. IV, 42); Mhvs 7, 1 (°mañcamhi nipanna); VvA. 158; PvA. 244.—2. D. III, 55; A. V, 64; Sn. 514 (°gata+ vitiṇṇa-kaṅkho); Vv 5324 (°gata+sītibhūta). This state of final emancipation (during life) has also received the determination of anupādā-parinibbāna, i.e. emancipation without ground. for further clinging (lit. without fuel), which corresponds to Bdhgh’s term “kilesavaṭṭassa khepitattā sa-upādi-sesa p. ” (see above); thus at M. I, 148; S. IV, 48; V, 29; A. I, 44; V, 65 (nicchāto nibbuto sītibhūto etc).; A. V, 233=253=Dh. 89 (+khīṇāsava). (Page 427)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण).—a.

1) Completely extinguished.

-ṇam Final extinction (of the individual); entire cessation of rebirths.

2) Name of a place where Buddha disappeared.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण).—nt. (= Pali °nibbāna), complete nirvāṇa: Mahāvyutpatti 186; 1370 (mahā-p°); 4106; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 319.5; Lalitavistara 428.15; Mahāvastu ii.157.5; Avadāna-śataka ii.197.6 ff. (with description); etc., passim. Note Bodhisattvabhūmi 55.17—18 prapañca-nirodho bodhisattvasya mahāyāna-parinirvāṇam iti veditavyam (a reinterpre- tation of the old term); see prapañca.

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Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण) or Parinirvāṇa-sūtra or Mahāparinirvāṇa or Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra.—: Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 156.15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण):—[from parinir-vā] mfn. completely extinguished or finished (a-parinirv), [Śakuntalā]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pariṇivvāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parinirvana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parinirvāṇa (परिनिर्वाण) [Also spelled parinirvan]:—(nm) final beatitude, complete liberation/salvation.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinirvana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parinirvāṇa (ಪರಿನಿರ್ವಾಣ):—[noun] the death of a Jina, a Jaina spiritual teacher or the Buddha.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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