Parajika, Pārājika, Pārājikā: 5 definitions

Introduction

Parajika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The first of the two divisions of the Sutta Vibhanga of the Vinaya Pitaka.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

T (That which does generate loss). Serious fault causing the loss of the status of bhikkhu for life. There are four parajikas (sexual intercourse, theft, murder, claim about non obtained realisations). There are 4 parajika.

  1. Refrain from having sexual intercourse.
  2. Refrain from stealing.
  3. Refrain from commiting murder.
  4. Refrain from claiming attainments of stages of pure mental concentration that have not been achieved.

See also: The 4 parajikas

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Parajika in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pārājika : (adj.) one who has committed the gravest transgression of the rules for bhikkhus.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pārājika, (etym. doubtful; suggested are parā+aj (Burnouf); para+ji; pārācika (S. Lévi, see Geiger, P. Gr. § 38, n. 3; also Childers s. v.)) one who has committed a grave transgression of the rules for bhikkhus; one who merits expulsion (see on term Vin. Texts I. 3; Miln. translation I. 268; II, 78) Vin. I, 172; II, 101, 242; A. II, 241; III, 252; V, 70; J. VI, 70, 112; Miln. 255; Vism. 22; KhA 97, DhA. I, 76 (as one of the divisions of the Suttavibhaṅga, see also Vin. III, 1 sq.). (Page 454)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pārājika (पाराजिक).—f. °kā, adj. (= Pali id.; on [etymology] see Lévi, JA. Nov.-Dec. 1912, 505 f., who assumes Pktic form for *pārācika, from parāc-, parāñc-, plus -ika; as Lévi notes, Pali comms. connect with parā-jayati; so also Northern Buddhists must sometimes have taken it, since Bodhisattvabhūmi uses pārājayika, q.v., which may be only a hyper-Sanskritism, see Wogihara, Lex. 34; Lévi notes AMg. pārañciya as supporting his view, suggesting derivation from Sanskrit parāñc-; a mysterious Sanskrit pārañcika, according to Schmidt, Nachträge, Bruch, Verletzung, occurs in Kauṭ. Arth., 195.16 in Sham.^1, hastapāda-°kaṃ vā kurvataḥ, or of one causing injury(?) to hands or feet; neither Meyer, 307.11 and note 4, nor Gaṇapati, who glosses by parāñcikam anyathābhāvaṃ saṃdhivighaṭanam iti yāvad, can offer any real explanation of the word, but it looks startlingly like the AMg. form), involving expulsion from the order of monks; of the utmost gravity (of a sin): catvāraḥ °kā dharmāḥ Mahāvyutpatti 8358; the four are listed 8364—7 as unchastity, stealing, taking life, and falsely claiming superhuman powers (uttaramanuṣya- dharma-pralāpa, see s.v. uttari); the same four in Pali (for the last, uttarimanussadhammaṃ…) Vin. iii.1 ff.; °kā dharmāḥ [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 476.7; °Kenā dharmeṇanudhvaṃsayet 481.6, should accuse falsely of a pār° offense; f., without [Page342-b+ 71] noun (sc. vipatti or āpatti), amūlikayā °jikayā Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.109.21; āpat pārājikā Śikṣāsamuccaya 66.16, a pār° offense; said of the person guilty of such an offense, deserving of ex- pulsion, °ko bhavati [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 477.1, 5; 478.5; similarly Śikṣāsamuccaya 143.7; (bhikṣuṇī…) °jikā Bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā 28b.1; in Śikṣāsamuccaya 59.12 read parājitaḥ, with same phrase in 60.12, 61.3, instead of text pārājikaḥ, compare Bendall and Rouse p.61 note 3. Cf. also next.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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