Canaka, Caṇaka, Cāṇaka: 18 definitions


Canaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chanaka.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Caṇaka (चणक) refers to “hemp”, according to the Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa Uttarakhaṇḍa 91.20, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.— In Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa, pulses like māṣa (black-gram), mudga (green-gram), kulattha (horsegram) and caṇaka (hemp) are mentioned. [...] According to Carakasaṃhitā, pulses such as mudga (green gram), masūra (lentil), caṇaka (hemp) and kalāya (pea) were parched and eaten.

Caṇaka or “bengal gram” is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on śimbīdhānya (grains with pods) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—In śimbīdhānya-prakaraṇa the properties of grains with pods such as mudga (green gram), māṣa (black-gram), caṇaka (bengal gram), kalāya (field pea), tila (sesame), atasī (linseed), sarṣapa (mustard) and masūra (lentils) are explained.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Caṇaka (चणक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Cicer arietinum (“gram”). It is a type of legume (śamīdhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant Caṇaka is part of the Śamīdhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of legumes”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Caṇaka is is light, cold, sweet, slightly astringent and roughening in character. It is beneficial for pitta and kapha and useful as pulses and pastes.

According to the Bhāvaprakāśa it has the following synonyms: Harimantha and Sakalapriya. The Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Cāṇaka (चाणक).—The auspiciousness of Cāṇaka (cowdung) is due to Lakṣmī. (See Lakṣmī, Paras 1 and 6).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Caṇaka (चणक) refers to “chick peas”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Svātī will delight in keeping birds, deer, horses; will be grain merchants; dealers in beans; of weak friendship; weak, of abstemious habits and skilled tradesmen. Those who are born on the lunar day of Viśākhā will grow trees yielding red flowers and red fruits; be dealers in gingelly seeds, beans, cotton, black gram and chick peas (caṇaka) and worshippers of Indra and Agni. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Caṇaka (चणक, “chickpeas”) refers to one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Canaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Cicer arietinum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Ononis crotalariodes M.E. Jones (among others).

2) Canaka is also identified with Crotalaria juncea It has the synonym Crotalaria porrecta Wall., nom. nud. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum. (1800)
· Bangladesh J. Pl. Taxon. (1994)
· Caryologia (2000)
· Bangladesh Journal of Botany (1981)
· Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical series (1937)
· Cytologia (1999)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Canaka, for example chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

caṇaka : (m.) gram

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṇakā (चणका).—m (caṇa!) The smart of the sting or bite of a scorpion, snake, flea &c.: also the sharp pain of a pinch, of actual cautery &c. the glow on eating peppers, or on exposure to the sun: the sharp hissing of phōḍaṇī &c. v māra, lāga, basa. 2 A gust or fit of passion. v yē, lāga.

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canakā (चनका).—See caṇakā, caṇakā- vaṇēṃ, caṇakāviṇēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caṇakā (चणका).—m The smart of the sting or bite of a scorpion, snake, flea &c. A gust or fit of passion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caṇaka (चणक).—

1) Chick-pea; उत्पतितोऽपि हि चणकः शक्तः किं भ्राष्ट्रकं भक्तुम् (utpatito'pi hi caṇakaḥ śaktaḥ kiṃ bhrāṣṭrakaṃ bhaktum) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.132.

2) Name of a gotra.

Derivable forms: caṇakaḥ (चणकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇaka (चणक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Chick-pea, (Cicer arietinum.) 2. The name of a sage. f.

(-kā) Linseed. E. caṇ to be given, affix ac and kan added; what is given to horses, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇaka (चणक).—[masculine] the chick-pea.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caṇaka (चणक):—[from caṇa] m. the chick-pea, [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xv f.; Pañcatantra; Kathāsaritsāgara]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of Cāṇakya’s father, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] of a village, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan viii, 194]

4) Caṇakā (चणका):—[from caṇaka > caṇa] f. linseed, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Cāṇaka (चाणक):—m. [plural] of kya [gana] kaṇvādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇaka (चणक):—[(kaḥ-kā)] 1. m. Chick-pea; name of a sage. f. kā Linseed.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Caṇaka (चणक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Caṇa, Caṇaa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Canaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caṇaka (ಚಣಕ):—[noun] = ಚಡ್ಡಿ [caddi]1 - 1.

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Caṇaka (ಚಣಕ):—[noun] = ಚಣಗೆ [canage].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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