Bhayanakarasa, Bhayanaka-rasa, Bhayānakarasa: 3 definitions


Bhayanakarasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanakarasa in Natyashastra glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Bhayānakarasa (भयानकरस) refers to the “terrible sentiment” used in dramatic performance (nāṭya). It is a Sanskrit compound composed of the words of bhayānaka (terrible) and rasa (‘sentiment’). This sentiment is produced from a combination of determinants, consequents and complementary psychological states.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Bhayānakarasa (भयानकरस) or simply Bhayānaka refers to the “terrible sentiment” and represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa bhayānaka is the sentiment of fear which arises from the commitment of a self committing offence. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, bhayānakarasa is accepted as the result of bībhatsa. In the Nāṭyaśāstra, Bharata gives numerous causes of fear viz., horrible noise, sight of ghosts, sound of jackal and owls, scene of dark forest, sight of death or imprisonment of dear ones etc. Bhaya i.e., fear is the sthāyibhāva of bhayānakarasa. Kṛṣṇa i.e black is the colour and Kāladeva is the God of this sentiment. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, it is to be enacted on stage by the gestures of trembling hands, pale face, drying up of lips and throat etc

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanakarasa in Kavyashastra glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Bhayānakarasa (भयानकरस) refers to the “terrible sentiment” or the “sentiment of the frightful” as defined by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).Cirañjīva says the basic feeling of bhayānaka-rasa is fear, and it is generated by excitants (vibhāva) like tiger etc., excitants (anubhāva) like trembling etc. and variants like infatuation or illusion etc. Though Cirañjīva has not said anything about the varieties of bhayānaka-rasa, Bharata, the author of Nāṭyaśāstra, has mentioned three kinds of bhayānaka-vyājāt (from pretention or simulation), aparādhāt (from offence or crime) and vitrāsitaka (having timid nature from birth).

Example of the sentiment of the frightful (bhayānaka-rasa):—

na paśyati taraṅgiṇīṃ na ca giriṃ na khātodaraṃ na bhālayati vā kvacinmṛgapatiṃ purastādayam |
muhurmanasi bhāvayannijavipakṣaceṣṭamaho palāyanaparaḥ karī vikaladhīḥ paraṃ dhāvati ||

“Oh! The escaping elephant does not see the river, neither the mountain, nor the inside of the ditch, not realize the lion sometimes in front. But having thought mentally of the action of own rival again and again quickly running with agitated mind”.

Notes: In this verse the elephant is the excitant, its escaping is ensuant and fright or alarm is the variant. With all these moods the sentiment of the frightful is manifested.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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