Vinaya (1): The Patimokkha

by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 17,356 words

The Patimokkha is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of all Buddhist text-books; and it has been inserted in its entirety into the first part of the Vinaya, the Vibhanga. The Patimokkha seems to have owed its existence to the ancient Indian custom of holding sacred two periods in each month, the times of the Full Moon and of the New Moon....

Chapter 6 - The Pacittiya Rules

Now here, venerable Sirs, the ninety-two Pācittiya Rules (Rules regarding matters requiring expiation) come into recitation.

1. There is Pācittiya in a deliberate lie.

2. There is Pācittiya in abusive language.

3. There is Pācittiya in slander of a Bhikkhu.

4. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall cause one not received into the higher grade (of the Order[2]) to recite the Dhamma clause by clause[3]—that is a Pācittiya.

5. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, for more than two or three nights, lie down (to sleep) in the same place with one not received into the higher grade (of the Order)—that is a Pācittiya.

6. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall lie down (to sleep) in the same place with a woman—that is a Pācittiya[4].

7. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall preach the Dhamma, in more than five or six words, to a woman, p. 33 without a man arrived at years of discretion[5] (being present)—that is a Pācittiya.

8. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall tell one not received into the higher grade (of the Order) that the (speaker or any other Bhikkhu) has extraordinary spiritual gifts, even when such, is the case[6]—that is a Pācittiya.

9. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall tell one not received into the higher grade (of the Order) of a Bhikkhu having faIIen into any grave offence—that is a Pācittiya.

10. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shaII dig the ground or have it dug[7]—that is a Pācittiya.

Here ends the first section, the 'Falsehood-section.'

11. There is Pācittiya in destroying any vegetabIe.

12. Thete is Pācittiya in prevarication, or in worrying (the assembled Bhikkhus; for instance, by refusing to answer[8]).

13. There is Pācittiya in stirring-up ill-wiII against, in speaking disrespectfuIIy of (any Bhikkhu deputed to any official duty[9]).

14. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has put out, or got another to put out to air, a bedstead, or a chair, or a mat, or a stool[10], the common property of the Saṃgha; and when going away shall not put it back, or have it put back, but shall depart without saying anything to anybody—that is a Pācittiya.

15. Whatsoever Bhikkhu has put out, or got another to put out, a bedstead in a dwelling-place common to a Saṃgha; and when going away shall not put it back, or have it put back, but shall depart without saying anything to anybody—that is a Pācittiya.

16. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, in a dwelling-place common to a Saṃgha, shall lie down where he knows that he is encroaching on (the space occupied by) a Bhikkhu who arrived before him, thinking, 'If he become inconvenienced he may go away'—if he does it for that object, and for no other[11]—that is a Pācittiya.

17. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or displeased with another Bhikkhu, shall drive him out, or get him driven out of a dwelling-place common to a Saṃgha—that is a Pācittiya.

18. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall hurriedly sit down, or lie down, in the upper story of a dwelling-place common to a Saṃgha[12], on a bedstead or chair with removable legs—that is a Pācittiya.

19. In case a Bhikkhu is having a large dwelling-place put up, he may have the work rectified, in a place where straw is scarce, round the doors, and where the bolts are put in, and the openings for light are set, and till the roof has been twice or thrice covered in[13]. Should he go beyond that, even in such a place—that is a Pācittiya.

20. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall sprinkle water with living creatures in it, or shall cause such to be sprinkled on grass or on clay—that is a Pācittiya.

Here ends the second section, the' Bhūtagāma-section.'

21. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, not thereto deputed, shall exhort the Bhikkhunī's[14] that is a Pācittiya.

22. If a Bhikkhu, even when thereto deputed, exhort the Bhikkhunī's after the sun has set—that is a Pācittiya.

23. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go to the dwelling-place of Bhikkhunī's, and there exhort the Bhikkhunī's[15], except on the (right) occasion—that is a Pācittiya.

Herein this is the right occasion: (to wit), when a Bhikkhunī is ill. This is the right occasion in this passage.

24. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall speak thus: 'The Bhīkkhus exhort the Bhikkhunī's for the sake of gain[16]!'—that is a Pācittiya.

25. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall give a robe to a Bhikkhunī who is not related to him, except in exchange—that is a Pācittiya.

26. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall make up a robe, or have it made up, for a Bhikkhunī who is not related to him—that is a Pācittiya.

27. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, by appointment, shall travel along a high road in company with a Bhikkhunī, even to go as far as the village, except on the right occasion—that is a Pācittiya.

Herein this is the right occasion: (to wit), when the road is so insecure and dangerous that travellers on it have to carry arms. This is the right occasion in this passage.

28. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, by appointment, shall go on board the same boat, whether going up stream or down stream, in company with a Bhikkhunī, except for the purpose of crossing over to the other side—that is a Pācittiya.

29. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, knowing it to be so, shall eat food procured by the intervention of a Bhikkhunī, unless the laity (who give the food) had already undertaken (to give it to him)[17]—that is a Pācittiya.

30. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, one man with one woman, in company with a Bhikkhunī, in a secret place[18]-that is a Pācittiya.

Here ends the third section, the 'Bhikkhunovāda-section.'

31. A Bhikkhu who is not sick may take one meal at a public rest-house[19]. Should he take more than that—that is a Pācittiya.

32. There is Pācittiya in going in a body to receive a meal[20], except on the right occasion. Herein the right occasion is this: (to wit), when there is sickness, when robes are being given, when robes are being made, when on a journey (on foot), when on board a boat, when (the influx of Bhikkhus) is great[21], when a general invitation is given to Samaṇas[22]. This is right occasion in this passage.

33. There is Pācittiya in taking food in turn[23], except on the right occasion.

Herein the right occasion is this: (to wit), when there is sickness, when robes are being given, when p. 39 robes are being made. This is right occasion in this passage.

34. In case people should offer a Bhikkhu, who has gone to some house, to take as much as he chose of their sweetmeats and cakes, that Bhikkhu, should he so wish, may accept two or three bowls full[24]. If he should accept more than that—that is a Pācittiya.

When he has accepted two or three bowls full[24], he must take them away, and divide them up among the Bhikkhus. That is the proper course in this case.

35. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he has once finished his meal, though still invited (to continue eating[25]), shall eat or partake of[26] food that has not been left over[27], whether hard or soft[28]—that is a Pācittiya.

36. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall offer a Bhikkhu who has finished his meal, though still invited to continue eating, his choice of food, whether hard or soft, that has not been left over, saying, 'Come, now, Bhikkhu; take and eat!' deliberately desiring to stir up longing (in that Bhikkhu); then if that Bhikkhu eats[29]—that is a Pācittiya.

37. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take or eat any food, whether hard or soft, at the wrong time[30]—that is a Pācittiya.

38. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall eat food, whether hard or soft, that has been put by—that is a Pācittiya.

39. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when he is not sick, shall request, for his own use, and shall partake of delicacies—to wit, ghee, butter, oil, honey, molasses, fish, flesh, milk, curds[31]—that is a Pācittiya.

40. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall place, as food, within the door of his mouth, anything not given to him, save only water and a tooth-cleaner[32]—that is a Pācittiya.

Here ends the fourth section, the 'Bhojana-section.'

41. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, with his own p. 41 hand, give food, whether hard or soft, to an Acelaka or to a Paribbājaka or to a Paribbājikā[33]—that is a Pācittiya.

42. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall address a Bhikkhu thus: 'Come, brother; let us go, for a meal, to the village, or the town!' and then, whether after he has got an alms for him, or without having got an alms for him, shall send him away, saying, 'Go away, brother! Talking with you, or sitting with you, is not pleasant to me. Talking, or sitting each one by himself, is more pleasant to me!'—if he does this for this cause, and for no other[34]—that is a Pācittiya.

43. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall force his way into a house where a meal is going on[35], and take a seat there—that is a Pācittiya.

44. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, in secret, with a woman, in a concealed place[36]—that is a Pācittiya.

45. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall take a seat, in secret, with a woman, one man with one woman—that is a Pācittiya.

46. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, who has been invited (to a house), and has been (thus already) provided with a meal, shall, without having previously spoken about it to a Bhikkhu, if there is one there, go on his (begging) rounds among the families, either before meal-time or after meal-time[37], except on the right occasion—that is a Pācittiya.

Herein the right occasion is this: (to wit), a time of giving of robes, a time of making of robes. That is right occasion in this passage.

47. A Bhikkhu who is not sick may accept a (standing) invitation with regard to the requisites[38] for four months. If he accept it for a period longer than that—unless there be a second invitation, or a perpetual invitation—that is a Pācittiya.

48. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall go to see an army drawn up in battle-array, except for a cause thereto sufficient—that is a Pācittiya.

49. And if there be any reason for that Bhikkhu's going to the army, that Bhikkhu may remain there for two or three nights. If he remain longer than that—that is a Pācittiya.

50. And if while remaining there for two or three nights he should go to the battle-array, or to the numbering of the forces, or to the drawing up of the forces, or to a review[39]-that is a Pācittiya.

End of the fifth section, the 'Acelaka-section.'

51. There is Pācittiya in the drinking of fermented liquors, or strong drinks[40].

52. There is Pācittiya in poking (another person) with the finger.

53. There is Pācittiya in sporting in the water[41].

54. There is Pācittiya in disrespect[42].

55. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall frighten a Bhikkhu[43]—that is a Pācittiya.

56. Whatsoever Bhikkhu; who is not sick, shall, desiring to warm himself[44], kindle a fire, or have a fire kindled, without cause sufficient thereto—that is a Pācittiya.

57. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall bathe at intervals of less than half a month, except on the proper occasion—that is a Pācittiya.

Herein this is proper occasion: (to wit), the two and a half months during which there is hot weather, and during which there is fever; namely, the last month and a half of the heats, and the first month p. 45 of the rains[45]: when sick; when there is work; when on a journey; when there has been wind and rain. This is right occasion in this connection.

58. A Bhikkhu who receives a new robe must choose one or other mode of disfigurement out of the three modes of disfigurement; either (making part of it) dark blue, or (marking part of it with) mud, or (making part of it) black. If a Bhikkhu should make use of a new robe without choosing one or other mode of disfigurement out of the three modes pf disfigurement[46]—that is a Pācittiya.

59. Whatsoever Bhikkhu who has made over[47] his robe to a Bhikkhu, or to a Bhikkhunī, or to a probationer, or to a Sāmaṇera, or to a Sāmaṇerī, shall continue to make use of it as a thing not (formally) given—that is a Pācittiya.

60. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall hide, or cause another to hide, a Bhikkhu's bowl, or his robe, or the mat on which he sits, or his needle-case[48], or his girdle, even though in fun—that is a Pācittiya.

End of the sixth section, the 'Surāpāna-section.'

61. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall deliberately deprive any living thing of life—that is a Pācittiya.

62. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, knowingly, drink water with living things in it—that is a Pācittiya.

63. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall stir up for decision again a matter which he knows to have been settled according to the Dhamma[49]—that is a Pācittiya.

64. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, who knows of it, shall conceal a serious offence[50] committed by a Bhikkhu—that is a Pācittiya.

65. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall admit a person under twenty years of age to the higher grade in the Order, knowing him (or her) to be so—(while) the person is not admitted to the higher grade, and the other Bhikkhus (who assist) are blameworthy—this is in him[51] a Pācittiya.

66. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, by appointment, journey along the same route with a caravan of p. 47 robbers, knowing it to be such, even as far as the next village[52]—that is a Pācittiya.

67. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, by appointment, journey along the same route with a woman[53], even as far as the next village—that is a Pācittiya.

68. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall speak thus: 'In this wise do I understand that the Dhamma has been proclaimed by the Blessed One: that to him who cultivates those Qualities which have been called "dangerous" by the Blessed One, there is not sufficient danger (to prevent his acquiring spiritual gifts)[54];' then that Bhikkhu should be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: "Say not so, brother! bear not false witness against the Blessed One! For neither is it seemly to bring a false accusation against the Blessed One, nor could the Blessed One speak so. By many a figure[55], brother, have the Dangerous Qualities been declared by the Blessed One to be full of danger[56], and also to be sufficient to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining spiritual gifts)[54].' If that Bhikkhu, when he has thus been spoken to by the Bhikkhus, should persist as before, then let that Bhikkhu be (formally) admonished about it by the Bhikkhus as a body, even to the third time, to the intent that he abandon that course. p. 48 If, while being so admonished, up to the third time, he abandon that course, it is well. If he abandon it not—that is a Pācittiya[57].

69. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, knowing him to be so, shall eat in company with, or dwell together with[58], or sleep in one place with a Bhikkhu who talks thus (as in 68), and has not been dealt with according to the law[59], and has not laid aside his delusion—that is a Pācittiya.

70. If a Sāmaṇera[60] even should say thus: 'In this wise do I understand that the Dhamma has been proclaimed by the Blessed One; that to him who cultivates those Qualities which have been caned "dangerous" by the Blessed One there is not sufficient danger (to prevent his attaining to spiritual gifts);' then that Sāmaṇera should be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'Say not so, good Sāmaṇera! Bear not false witness against the Blessed One. For neither is it seemly to bring a false accusation against the Blessed One, nor could the Blessed One speak so. By many a figure, good Sāmaṇera, have the p. 49 Dangerous Qualities been declared by the Blessed One to be full of danger, and also to be sufficient to prevent him who cultivates them (from attaining to spiritual gifts).' And if that Sāmaṇera, when so addressed by the Bhikkhus, shall persist in that course, that Sāmaṇera should be addressed by the Bhikkhus thus: 'From this day forth, good Sāmaṇera, neither can that Blessed One be referred to[61] by you as your Teacher , nor can the privilege, which the other Sāmaṇeras enjoy, of sleeping in the same place with the Bhikkhus for two or three nights[62], any longer be yours! Depart! away with you[63]!'

Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall encourage[64], or support[65], or eat with, or sleep in the same place with, a Sāmaṇera thus expelled—that is a Pācittiya.

End of the seventh section, the 'Sappāṇaka[66]-section.'

71. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when admonished by the Bhikkhus in respect of some precept in accordance with the Dhamma, shall speak thus: 'I cannot submit myself to that precept, brother, until I shall have enquired touching it of another Bhikkhu, an experienced master of the Vinaya'—that is a Pācittiya.

A Bhikkhu desirous of training, Bhikkhus[67], should learn, and enquire, and settle in his own mind. This is the right rule in this connection.

72. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when the Pātimokkha is being recited, shall speak thus: 'What comes of these minor[68] precepts being here recited, save only that they tend to misgiving, and worry, and perplexity!'—there is Pācittiya in thus throwing contempt on the precepts[69].

73. 'Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when at the half month the Pātimokkha is being recited, should say thus: 'Now for the first time do I notice that this rule, they say, is handed down in the Suttas, is embraced in the Suttas!'—then, if the other Bhikkhus shall know concerning that Bhikkhu thus: 'This Bhikkhu has taken his place at the recitation of the Pātimokkha once, or twice, not to say oftener[70]'—that Bhikkhu is not only not made free on account of his ignorance[71], but he is to be dealt with according to the Dhamma for the offence into which he has fallen, and furthermore he is to be charged with foolishness (in the words), 'This is loss to thee, p. 51 brother, this is an evil to thee, in that when the Pātimokkha is being recited you fail to take it to your heart, and attend to it with care.' There is Pācittiya in such foolish conduct.

74. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or displeased with another Bhikkhu, shall give a blow—that is a Pācittiya.

75. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, being angry or displeased with another Bhikkhu, shall make use of any threatening gesture[72]—that is a Pācittiya.

76. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall harass a Bhikkhu with a (charge of) Saṃghādisesa without ground—that is a Pācittiya.

77. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall intentionally suggest difficulties of conscience to a Bhikkhu, with the idea of causing him uneasiness, even for a moment; if he does it to that end alone—that is a Pācittiya.

78. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall stand by overhearing when Bhikkhus are quarrelling, or making a disturbance, or engaged in a dispute, hoping to hear what they shall utter; if he does it to that end alone—that is a Pācittiya.

79. Whatsoever Bhikkhu; when he has declared his consent to formaI proceedings conducted according to the Dhamma, shall thereafter grumble (about those proceedings)[73]—that is a Pācittiya.

80. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when the Saṃgha is engaged in conducting a (formal) enquiry, shall rise from his seat, and go away, without having declared his consent—that is a Pācittiya.

81. Whatsoever Bhikkhu, when, in a regularly constituted Saṃgha[74], he has given away a robe, shall thereafter grumble about it, saying, 'The Bhikkhus appropriate the property of the Saṃgha according to friendship'—that is a Pācittiya.

82. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall divert to the use of any individuaI property dedicated to the Saṃgha, knowing it to be so—that is a Pācittiya.

Here ends the eighth section, the 'Sahadhammika-section.'

83. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall cross the threshold of an anointed Khattiya king, when the king has not gone forth, and the queen has not withdrawn, without first having had himself announced[75]—that is a Pācittiya.

84. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall pick up, or cause another to pick up, except in a grove or in a dwelling-place, a jewel, or anything deemed a jewel[76]—that is a Pācittiya.

Should a Bhikkhu have picked up, either in a grove or in a dwelling-place, a jewel, or anything deemed a jewel, it is to be laid aside, that he to whom it may belong may take it away. This is the right course in such a case.

85. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall, out of hours[77], enter a vinage, without having informed a Bhikkhu if one is present[78], except on account of business of a special nature[79] thereto sufficient—that is a Pācittiya.

86. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a needle-case made of bone, or ivory, or horn, it shall be broken up—and that is a Pācittiya.

87. When a Bhikkhu is having a new bedstead or chair made, it should be made with legs eight inches in height, according to the accepted inch[80], exclusive of the lowermost piece of the bed frame[81]. To him who exceeds that limit there is a Pācittiya, p. 54 and (the legs of the piece of fumiture) shall be cut down (to the proper size).

88. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a bedstead or a chair made, stuffed with cotton[82], the stuffing shall be torn out—and that is a Pācittiya.

89. When a Bhikkhu is having a rug or mat to sit upon made, it must be made of the right measure. Herein this is the measure: in length two spans, according to the accepted span; in breadth one span; the border one span. To him who exceeds that limit there is a Pācittiya, and (the article) shall be cut down (to the proper size).

90. When a Bhikkhu is having an itch-cloth[83] made, it must be made of the right measure. Herein this is the measure: in length four spans, according to the accepted span; in width two spans. To him who exceeds that limit there is a Pācittiya, and (the cloth) shall be cut (clown to the proper size).

91. When a Bhikkhu is having a garment made for the rainy season, it must be made of the right measure. Herein this is the right measure: in length six spans, according to the accepted span; in breadth two spans and a half. To him who exceeds that limit there is a Pācittiya, and (the garment) shall be cut (down to the proper size).

92. Whatsoever Bhikkhu shall have a robe made of the dimensions of a Sugata's robe[84], or larger— p. 55 that is a Pācittiya, and (the robe) shall be cut down to the proper size.

Herein this is the measure of the Sugata robe of a Sugata: in length nine spans, according to the accepted span; in breadth six spans. This is me measure of the Sugata robe of a Sugata.

End of the ninth section, the 'Ratana-section.'

Venerable Sirs, the ninety-two rules regarding matters requiring expiation have been recited.

In respect of them I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'

A second time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in this matter?'

A third time I ask the venerable ones, 'Are you pure in tliis matter?'

The venerable ones are pure herein. Therefore do they keep silence. Thus I understand.

Here endeth the recitation of the Pācittiyas.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

That is, 'requiring repentance.' Compare the Sanskrit terms Prāyaskittika and Prāyaskittīya.

[2]:

Literally, 'one who has not received the upasampadā.'

[3]:

Anupasampannaṃ padaso dhammaṃ vāceyya. This rule is directed against a wrong method of teaching the Dhamma to a Sāmaṇera. See the extracts from the Old Commentary, and from the Samanta-Pāsādikā, given by Minayeff on p. 84. Read however in the second line osāpenti for āsāpenti; and then go on anvakkharaṃ nāma, rūpam aniccan ti vuccamāno ruppan ti opāteti: anuvyañjanaṃ nāma, rūpam aniccan ti vuccamāno vedanā aniccā ti saddaṃ nicchāreti, &c.

[4]:

For the text read mātugāmena.

[5]:

Viññu. The Vibhaṅga says, 'a man able to understand what is well said, and what is wrongly said; what is wicked, and what is not wicked.' Compare the use of viññutā at Jātaka I, 231.

[6]:

To do so when it was not the case, would be a Pārājika. See the 4th Pārājika, and our note there on the meaning of uttarimanussa-dhammaṃ. The 'even' here means that the truth of the averment makes no excuse for it.

[7]:

Because doing so might bring some living thing into danger.

[8]:

Vihesake; which must be understood as being done in a formal meeting of the Saṃgha during an official enquiry.

[9]:

The words in parentheses are supplied from the explanations in the Vibhaṅga.

[10]:

Kocchaṃ, the meaning of which is not quite clear. The Vibhaṅga says there are four kinds, made of bark, of usīra roots, of munñj grass, and of bulrushes. It is apparently therefore of wickerwork.

[11]:

That is, according to the Vibhaṅga, the rule does not apply to an invalid, or to one suffering from the heat, or the cold; and so on.

[12]:

Because if he does so, he might unwittingly upset the furniture, or fall himself, to the injury of some one who was rightfully on the ground floor.

[13]:

In the text read dvitticchadanassa: ṭhite pi. This rule, directed against too great luxury in the matter of a perfectly finished dwelling, is somewhat obscure, owing to our want of information as to the mode in which such dwellings should be put up. It refers probably to a hut, albeit a large one, of wattel and daub (kuḍḍa: comp. Rh. D.'s note on the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta V, 41). The Samanta-Pāsādikā divides dvāra-kosa into dvāra-okāsa, and quotes various estimates from the old Sinhalese commentaries as to the proper extent of this space (see Minayeff, p. 87).

[14]:

Ovadeyya; that is, shall preach to them the eight Garu-dhammā. On these see the passages mentioned in the Index appended to the text of the Cullavagga; and on the ovāda see Cullavagga X, 9, 2, and fonowing. The mode of procedure is laid down in the Vibhaṅga as follows: 'The Bhikkhu asks the Bhikkhunī's, "Are you all present, sisters, and do none raise objections (that is, are you samaggā)?" If they say, "That is so Sir!" he asks, "Are the eight Garu-dhammā being kept up?" If they say, "They are, Sir!" he is to say, "That, sisters, is the exhortation! " and so deliver it to them. If they say, "They are not, Sir!" he should go all through them, saying, "A sister who has been received into the higher grade even one hundred years, &c. (and so on to the end of the Garu-dhammā)."

[15]:

Compare Cullavagga X, 6, I.

[16]:

Āmisa-hetu; that is, in order that the sisters may be induced to supply the preachers with food, medicine, &c.

[17]:

The introductory story in the Vibhaṅga is of a Bhikkhu born in Rāgagaha, who went to a relative's house, and a meal was there being prepared for him by his relatives. A kulupikā bhikkhuhī then arrives, and says, 'My friends, give the gentleman a meal!' Then the Bhikkhu was in doubt whether he ought not to refuse it as being Bhikkhunī-paripācitaṃ.

[18]:

Compare the Aniyatā Dhammā.

[19]:

Eko āvasatha-piṇḍo bhuñjitabbo. An āvasatha is one of those 'chaultries,' or public resting-places, which good Buddhists were wont to put up in the villages or at cross roads. At some of these a constant supply of rice was provided for travellers. See the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta I, 10; II, 5 (pp. 10, 16); Jātaka, No. 31 (' Buddbist Birth Stories,' pp. 280-285); Mabā-sudassana Sutta I, 63; Dhammapada Commentary apud Fausböll, 185. The Samanta-Pāsādikā on this rule (Minayeff, p. 88) says that āvasatha-pindo is a meal in such an āvasatha.

[20]:

On this rule compare Cullavagga VII, 3, 13. 'In a body' means four or more Bhikkhus going together to the same house.

[21]:

Mabā-samayo. Tbe Vibhaṅga relates how, when vassa was over, the Bhikkhus repaired in great numbers to visit the Buddha. On such occasions it was difficult or impossible for them all, if they adhered to the strict rule, to obtain their meals.

[22]:

Samaṇa-bhatta-samayo. See the Vibhaṅga, and the Samanta-Pāsādikā, quoted by Minayeff, pp. 88, 89. ' Samaṇas,' of course, includes others besides Buddhists.

[23]:

Parampara-bhojane; that is, in picking and choosing with regard to food, or in regard to different invitations. The Bhikkhus were to eat straight on whatever was given, and to accept invitations in the order in which they were received. But a sick Bhikkhu might choose one morsel rather than another; and Bhikkhus in bealth might accept an invitation to a house where robes are going to be given, or made, rather than to a house where only a meal was offered. The last exception was simply to guard against the stock of robes falling short (Bhikkhu . . . nādhivāsenti: civaraṃ parittaṃ uppajjati, says the Vibhaṅga).

[24]:

In the text read dvittipattapurā.

[25]:

Pavārito. The Vibhaṅga says, Pavārito nāma āsanaṃ paññāyati bhojanaṃ paññāyati hatthapāse ṭhito abhiharati paṭikkhepo paññāyati; which means, we think, 'A seat for him is there, food is there, (the host) standing near him still makes invitation, but there takes place a refusal (of the proferred food).'

[26]:

Khādeyya vā bhuñjeyya vā.

[27]:

The 'not left over' refers only to the case of a sick Bhikkhu. A Bhikkhu in health, when he has once finished his meal, ought not to eat what he has left.

[28]:

Khādaniyaṃ vā bhojaniyaṃ vā. The former term is used of hard food, such as biscuits, cakes, meats, fruits, &c.; the latter term of soft foods, such as boiled rice, curries, &c. The two words for eating correspond to these two ideas.

[29]:

Bhuttasmiṃ pācittiya; that is, the offence is completed when the eating has taken place; but the offer alone is not a Pācittiya. So the Vibhaṅga.

[30]:

After sun-turn.

[31]:

ln the text read tāni; madhu phāṇitaṃ.

[32]:

Dantapona; doubtless the same, perhaps an older expression for, the danta kaṭṭha referred to in Cullavagga V, 31. It is a piece of fragrant root (cinnamon, betel, &c.) about eight inches long.

[33]:

These are the various non-Buddhist religious teachers or devotees, most of whom rejected the Vedas. The Paribbājakas were mostly, though not always, wandering logicians, willing to maintain theses against all the world. Paribbājikā is merely the feminine of the last. Acelaka, which naturally has no feminine, were the naked ascetics.

[34]:

That is merely to get rid of him, in order to gain any purpose of his own. The Vibhaṅga gives as examples that the Bhikkhu sees some valuable things, and wants to get them; or sees some woman, and wants to speak to her.

[35]:

Sabhojane kule; the meaning ofwhich is notquite clear. The Old Commentary says, 'A sabhojana kula is one where there is a husband and a wife; and they both, husband and wife, are not gone forth from, are not devoid of lust' (Minayeff, p. 89, under P.; but for anatikkantā read anikkhantā). Then the Samanta-Pāsādikā, doubtless to justify this suggested implication, makes sabhoganaṃ equal to saha ubhohi janehi (!); or, in the alternative, to sabhogaṃ, since 'the wife is the bhoga of a man still given to passion, and the husband the bhoga of a wife.' The use of Bhojana in any such sense is extremely forced, and was perhaps only suggested by the following rules; but it is just possible we should translate, 'a household still given to pleasure' (compare Cullavagga VIII, 5, 1), or 'fond of good food' (compare Milinda Pañha 76).

[36]:

Compare the 30th Pākittiya, and the two Aniyatā Dhammā.

[37]:

The Vibhaṅga has the following stories in regard to these two particulars. A family devated to Upananda invited him and another Bhikkhu. Before meal-time he went to attend on other families (purebhattaṃ kulāni payirupāsati). The people delayed giving his meal to the other Bhikkhu till Upananda should arrive. He came late; and the other Bhikkhu was thereby discomforted.

[38]:

These are usually four--clothing, food, residence, and medicine. This rule refers more especially to medicine, as appears from the explanation in the Vibhaṅga.

[39]:

On this rule compare the third section of the Majjhima-Sīla, and the third section of the Mahā-Sīla (translated in Rh. D.'s 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' pp. 192, 198 {sic. p. 196 or 197}). We follow the Vibhaṅga in the interpretation of the various terms.

[40]:

The Old Commentary (quoted by Minareff, p. 90) distinguishes between surā and meraya by the former being derived from flour, water, &c., and the latter from flowers, fruits, &c.

[41]:

Throwing water over one another, and chasing one another, were common amusements at the public and private bathing-places. Our MSS. read throughout hāsa-dhamme.

[42]:

Anādarire. That is, according to the Vibhaṅga, paying no heed, when one's attention is drawn by an upasampanna to the fact that this or that action is against the rule laid down (paññattaṃ). But compare also Cullavagga VIII, 8, 1.

[43]:

In the text read bhiṃsāpeyya.

[44]:

H. O.'s MS. reads visibbanāpekho. At Mahāvagga I, 20, 15, visibbesuṃ occurs in the sense of they warmed themselves.' Trenckner at p. 47 of the Milinda Pañha reads aggiṃ galetvā visīvetvā; and at p. 102, saṃsibbitavisibbitattā sākhānaṃ.

[45]:

The Vibhaṅga refers the first of these periods to the hot weather, and the second to the fever weather.

[46]:

In the text insert a full stop after kāḷasāmaṃ vā. The object of this rule, according to the Vibhaṅga, is to enable a Bhikkhu to trace his robe should it get lost by being mixed up with others. Compare the I5th Nissaggiya.

[47]:

The Vibhaṅga says, 'There are two ways of appointment (in making over, vikappanā), promising in the presence, and promising in the absence (of the person to whom the appointment is made). Promise in the presence is by the words, "I make over this robe to you, or to such and such a one (then present)!" Promising in the absence is by the words, "I give this robe to you for you to appoint (to some one else)." Then the person spoken to should say, "Who is your friend, or intimate acquaintance?" "Such a one, or such a one." Then the other should say, "I give this to them. This is their property. Wear it, or part with it, or do with it as you like!"'

[48]:

In the text read sūcigharaṃ.

[49]:

Compare the 79th Pācittiya, and Cullavagga IV, 14 passim.

[50]:

That is, a Pārājika, or a Saṃghādisesa.

[51]:

The upajjhāya is guilty of a Pācittiya; the ācariya, and the gaṇa, of a Dukkaṭa, says the Vibhaṅga.

[52]:

Compare the 27th Pācittiya. A caravan that sets out with intent to steal or rob on the way is meant.

[53]:

Compare the 27th and 28th Pācittiyas.

[54]:

These are specified in detail in Mahāvagga II, 3, 7.

[55]:

Pariyāya; fulness, extent, of illustration and explanation. Not merely manner, or method, of statement. Much of this pariyāya will be found in the various similes used in the Cullavagga loc. cit.

[56]:

In the text here, and in the çorresponding clause of No.70, read anekapariyāyena āvuso antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā. bhagavatā, as in Cullavagga I, 32.

[57]:

This rule is directed against the delusion that sin, to a very holy man, loses its danger and its sinfulness. Compare the 4th Saṃghādisesa; and, on the method of procedure here laid down, the 10th to the 13th Saṃghādisesas. At Cullavagga I, 32 lust is declared to be an antarāyiko dhammo; and falsehood another at Mahāvagga II, 3, 3. The Samanta-Pāsādikā (quoted by Minayeff, p. 92) gives five divisions of these 'dangerous qualities.'

[58]:

This the Vibhaṅga explains as holding Uposatha, or Pavāraṇā, or a Saṃghakamma with him.

[59]:

Ukkhitto anosārito, says the Vibhaṅga. Compare Mahāvagga IX, 4, 10, 11.

[60]:

Samaṇuddeso; which is explained by the Old Commentary as equal to Sāmaṇera. Why, in the Pātimokkha, now one and now the other expression should be used, is not clear. In the later texts Sāmaṇera is the usual form, but samaṇuddeso is found also in a few passages.

[61]:

Apadisitabbo. Compare the four Mahāpadesā in the Mahā-parinibbāna. Sutta IV, 7-11.

[62]:

Compare the 5th Pācittiya.

[63]:

In the text read cara pi re; that is, cara api re, instead of cara pare. On vinassa compare Mahāvagga I, 61, 1.

[64]:

Upalāpeyya. Compare Mahāvagga I, 59, and Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta I, 5, and the passages quoted in Rh. D.'s version of the latter passage. The Old Commentary says, 'Flatters him (talks him over, tassa upalāpeti) by saying, "I will give you a bowl, or a robe, or hear you repeat, or answer your questions."'

[65]:

Upaṭṭhāpeyya. The Old Commentary says, 'by providing him with chunam, or clay, or a tooth-cleanser, or water to wash his face with.' No doubt upaṭṭhāpetī is used in the sense of showing such personal attentions to another, as the upaṭṭhākā did to the Buddha; and such services would very rightly come under this rule. Yet here, as often, the comment is rather a scholastic exegesis of the sentence, than a philologically exact explanation of the word.

[66]:

This title is taken from the second, not, as in all the other cases, from the first rule in the section.

[67]:

On this strange allocution see the note to the 10th Nissaggiya.

[68]:

Khuddānukhuddakehi. Compare the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta VI, 3, and the passages quoted there in Rh. D.'s note.

[69]:

In the text read vivaṇṇake.

[70]:

In the text read ko pana vādo bhiyyo.

[71]:

In the text read aññāṇakena.

[72]:

Talasattikaṃ uggireyya. The Old Commentary says, Kāyaṃ vā kāyapṭibaddhaṃ vā antamaso uppalapattaṃ pi uccāreti. Compare āvudhāni uggiritvā at Jātaka I, 150.

[73]:

If he should raise any formal objections so as to re-open the question, that would fall under the 63rd Pācittiya. On 'declaring one's consent' in this and the following rule, see below, Mahāvagga II, 23. The whole rule, as well as on No. 63, is repeatedly referred to in Cullavagga IV, 14.

[74]:

Samaggena saṃghena. See the note to the 21st Pācittiya.

[75]:

Indakhīla, the word translated 'threshold,' is explained in the Old Commentary by sayani-ghara, 'sleeping chamber;' but this is rather a didactic gloss on the rule. Compare the note above on the 43rd Pācittiya. The phrase 'when the queen has not gone in' is somewhat doubtful. H. O.'s MS. of the Vibhaṅga reads (as Minayeff does) aniggata-ratanake, instead of Dickson's anīhata-ratanake. The former is the better reading; nīhata is impossible, it must be either nihata or nīhaṭa. But ratanaka, though the queen is one of the seven Ratanas of a king, is not found elsewhere used absolutely for a queen: the use of rājake, too, immediately after rañño, instead of raññe or rājini, is curious. A possible alternative rendering would be 'when the court has not departed, and the regalia not laid aside:' but we prefer on the whole the Old Commentator's explanation of rā.gaka and ratanaka.

[76]:

Ratanasammataṃ; that is, a thing made of one of those substances ranked with gems, such as jade, coral, &c.

[77]:

Vikāle; that is, says the Old Commentary, from sun-turn in one day till sun-rise in the next.

[78]:

Santaṃ bhikkhuṃ. If one is not present, he may go without. The Old Commentary gives no such delinition of being present, as Mr. Dickson has supplied.

[79]:

Accāyika. Compare the note on the 28th Nissaggiya.

[80]:

Sugataṅgulena. See the note on the 6th Saṃghādisesa.

[81]:

Aṭani. There is no explanation of this term, either in the Old Commentary, or in the Samanta-Pāsādikā.

[82]:

Tūlaṃ; which the Old Commentary expands into three kinds--tūlaṃ from a tree, tūlaṃ from a creeper, and tūlaṃ from a young fowl.

[83]:

When a Bhikkhu had a boil, or running sore, or any such disease, the use of an itch-cloth (so called from the first in the list of skin complaints there mentioned) is laid down in Mahāvagga VIII, 17.

[84]:

On the doubtful meaning of Sugata, see the note above on the 28th Nissaggiya. There is no reason whatever to believe that Gotama's robe was larger, in proportion, than those worn by the other members of his order. He exchanged robes with Mahā Kassapa. Of the two sets of robes brought by Pukkusa, one was given to Ānanda, and one was reserved for the Buddha himself; and no one can read the account in the Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta without feeling that both are supposed to be of the same size.

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