Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Offence of wrong-doing in assent

Kd.3.14.1 Now at that time a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala came to be assented to for the earlier period[1] by the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans. As he was going to that residence, he saw on the way two residences with many robes. It occurred to him: “Now, suppose I should spend the rains in these two residences? Thus would many robes accrue to me.” He spent the rains in these two residences. King Pasenadi of Kosala … spread it about, saying: “How can this master Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having assented to our rains-residence, break his word? Is not lying condemned in many a figure by the Lord and restraint from lying extolled?”

Kd.3.14.2 Monks heard King Pasenadi of Kosala as he … spread it about. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can Vin.1.154 the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break his word? Is not lying condemned in many a figure by the Lord and restraint from lying extolled?”

Kd.3.14.3 Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the venerable Upananda, the son of the Sakyans, saying: “Is it true, as is said, Upananda, that you, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, broke your word?”

“It is true, Lord.” The awakened one, the Lord, rebuked him, saying:

BD.4.204 “How can you, foolish man, having assented to a rains-residence belonging to King Pasenadi of Kosala, break your word? Foolish man, is not lying condemned in many a figure by me and restraint from lying extolled? It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” and having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Kd.3.14.4 “This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going to that residence he sees on the way two residences with many robes. It occurs to him: ‘What now if I should spend the rains in these two residences? Thus would many robes accrue to me.’ He spends the rains in these two residences. Monks, the earlier period is not valid for that monk, and also there is an offence of wrong-doing in the assent.

Kd.3.14.5 “This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. As he is going to that residence he carries out Observance outside it, he reaches a dwelling-place on the day after the Observance day, he prepares a lodging, he sets out drinking-water and water for washing, he sweeps a cell, and, having nothing to do, he departs that self-same day. Monks, the earlier period is not valid for that monk, and also there is an offence of wrong-doing in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … = Kd.3.14.5 … he sweeps a cell, and, having something to do, he departs that self-same day. Monks, … in the assent.

Kd.3.14.6 “This is a case, monks, … and, having nothing to do, he departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having something to do he departs, having spent two or three days. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having stayed two or three days, he departs on some business that can be done in seven days. But he passes those seven days outside. Monks, … in the assent.

“This is a case, monks, … and, having stayed two or three days, he departs on some business that can be done in seven BD.4.205 days. Vin.1.155 He returns within seven days. Monks, the earlier period is valid for that monk, and there is no offence in the assent.

Kd.3.14.7 “This is a case, monks, … and having something to do before the Invitation,[2] he departs for seven days. Monks, whether that monk returns or whether he does not return to that residence, the earlier period is valid for that monk, and also there is no offence in the assent.

Kd.3.14.8 - Kd.3.14.10 “This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the earlier period. Having arrived at that residence he carries out the Observance, he reaches a dwelling-place on the day after the Observance day[3]

Kd.3.14.11 “This is a case, monks, where a rains-residence comes to be assented to by a monk for the later period. As he is going to that residence he carries out Observance outside it … the whole passage is identical with Kd.3.14.5–Kd.3.14.10; for earlier period read later period; for before the Invitation read before the komudī cātumāsinī[4] … and also there is no offence in the assent.”

The Third Section: that on beginning the Rains

This is its key:

To enter on (the rains), and just when? how many?
and during the rains,
and they did not want to, intentionally,
to postpone, a lay-follower, Vin.1.156
Ill, and a mother, a father,
and a brother, then a relation,
a person living with monks, a dwelling-place,
and also beasts of prey, creeping things,
BD.4.206 And so thieves, and demons, burnt,
and in regard to both[5],
carried away by water, was removed,
and the majority, benefactors[6],
And about coarse and sumptuous (foods),
beneficial medicines, an attendant,
a woman, a low class woman,
and a grown girl, a eunuch, and about a relation,
Kings, thieves, men of abandoned life,
a treasure, schisms, and by what is eightfold[7],
a cow-pen, and a caravan,
and a boat, in a hollow, and in a fork,
A rains-residence in the open air,
and about one who had no lodgings,
a charnel-house, and under a sunshade,
and these went upon (the rains) in a water-jar,
An agreement, having assented,
and Observance days outside,
the earlier, the later,
one should combine them after the same fashion[8],
He departs having nothing to do,
and likewise because he has something to do,
spending two or three days[9],
and on business that can be done in seven days,
And then going away for seven days,
whether he should return or should not come back, BD.4.207
In the key to the items the order[10]
should observe the woven way.[11]

In this Chapter there are fifty-two items.[12] Vin.1.157

Footnotes and references:

1.

purimikāya, that is, for the first three months of the rainy season.

2.

Pavāraṇā, a ceremony held at the end of the third month of the rains. See Kd.4.

3.

Kd.3.14.5–Kd.3.14.7 are repeated, the only difference being that there the monk held Observance outside the residence to which he was going; here he holds it when he has arrived.

4.

Cf. BD.4.231, below. This is the full moon day of the month Kattika, marks the end of the later period for keeping the rains, and thus the end of the fourth month of the rainy season. See Vinaya Texts i.324. n.2 and Dialogues of the Buddha i.66, n.1. According to DN-a.139 the white lotus, kumuda, blooms then.

5.

tadubhayena. Word is not in the text. Reference is to Kd.3.9.3, where the case is taken of both a village and monks’ lodgings being burnt.

6.

dāyaka. Word not in the text, but it probably refers to the minority who, because believing, may be presumed to have given alms to the monks, Kd.3.10.1. Indeed these three headings: “was removed, and the majority, benefactors” refer to one and the same episode, and should therefore not be counted as separate items in reckoning the total of “fifty-two items” in this Chapter.

7.

I.e. the eight ways of making a schism which the monk hears about, Kd.3.11.6–Kd.3.11.13. The first way which he sees, Kd.3.11.5, has as its key-word the word “schisms” which also includes the next heading—“by what is eightfold”.

8.

yathānayena yojaye, referring to the similar permutations of events which are repeated for the later as for the earlier period of the rains.

9.

The Sinhalese reading of dvīhatīhaṃ vasitvāna is to be preferred to Oldenberg’s dvihatīhā ca puna, “after two or three days and again”, as it corresponds more closely to Kd.3.14.6. The latter, however, might be justified by the three cases there mentioned of “two or three days”.

10.

antarikā, sphere, compass; interval, i.e. the intervals between the items, the range they cover, hence their order.

11.

tantimagga, the way that is strung or woven together, so the sacred text or tradition. Cf. DN-a.2, MN-a.i.2. Tantibhadda at Vin.1.312, tantidhara at Vism.99.

12.

This number is perhaps arrived at by (1) omitting “in regard to both” as a separate heading, being already included under “burnt”; (2) taking “was removed, majority, benefactors” as one heading (see BD.4.206 n.2 ); (3) taking line 7 as one heading referring to Kd.3.11.1, Kd.3.11.2; (4) taking “schisms, and what is eightfold” as one heading (see BD.4.206 n.3); (5) taking “the earlier, the later, one should combine them after the same fashion” as one heading (see BD.4.206 n.4); (6) taking the last line but one as referring to one and the same eventuality, in Kd.3.14.7.

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