by Dhrubajit Sarma | 2015 | 94,519 words
This page relates “Rasa (6): Bhayanaka or the sentiment of terror” as it appears in the case study regarding the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa. The Shrikanthacarita was composed by Mankhaka, sometimes during A.D. 1136-1142. The Mankhakosa or the Anekarthakosa is a kosa text of homonymous words, composed by the same author.
Bhayānakarasa has bhaya or fear for its sthāyibhāva and kāla or time as its presiding deity. It belongs to female and mean persons and it is treated under a mystical or mythological aspect by the learned as being black-coloured. The sources of fear is regarded as the ālambanavibhāvas here, the dreadful attempts etc. are uddīpanvibhāvas, the changes of colour and speaking with a stammering tone, tainting, perspiration, horripilation, trembling, looking at every direction etc. are anubhāvas, while disgust, agitation, bewilderment, terror, fatigue, distress, suspicion, epilepsy, confusion, death etc., are regarded as sañcāribhāvas in connection with the sentiment of terror.
Maṅkhaka employs Bhayānakarasa in canto XVII of his poem, wherein the increasing feeling of terror in the minds of celestial females, even on hearing the very name of the Tripuras has been narrated. Similarly, the increasing feeling of terror in the minds of demons as well as their consorts, at the appearance of evil omens, such as earthquake, solar eclipse, appearance of comet in the sky etc. are also referred.
These feeling of terror has been described in canto XIX, in the verses from 49-65, some of them are viz. āsīdanmṛḍacāpadaṇḍa ….., bimbaṃ raverghaṭitarāhu …., yasyoccaiḥ kaṭacīna …., tanvanvāmapumaṅga …., etc. Again, the fear of attack of the gods’ army on the demons has terrified the demons, which has been described in various verses.
The fear of the wives of the demons, generated by the extreme anxiety and worry for their husbands, who are fighting with the army of the gods has been nicely depicted in canto XXII, in the verses, viz. nirgacchatsu priyeṣu …. and darśaṃ darśaṃ surāṇāṃ….. It may be mentioned here that Maṅkhaka combines the sentiment of erotic, heroic as well, with that of terror, which ultimately helps in heightening the appeal of the particular sentiment delineated.
Footnotes and references:
bhayānako bhayasthāyibhāvo kālo’dhidaivataḥ/
strīnīcaprakṛtiḥ kṛṣṇo matastattvaviśāradiḥ/
yasmādutpadyate bhītistadatrālambanaṃ mataṃ/
ceṣṭā dhāratarāstasya bhaveduddīpanaṃ punaḥ/
śaṅkāpasmārasaṃbhrāntimṛtyvādyā vyabhicāriṇaḥ// Sāhityadarpaṇa., III. 235-238
te prāpya tripuraprathāmatha pṛthaglokānrujantaḥ sthitā divyānyabdaśatāyutānyupanamadvīśvāpamṛtuśriyaḥ/
yannāmnāpyadhirohatā śrutipadaṃ gīrvāṇavāmabhruvāṃ gāhante tanavo’tivelapavanodvellallatāsauhṛdaṃ// Śrīkaṇṭhacarita., XVII. 62
Ibid., XIX. 49
Ibid., XIX. 50
Ibid., XIX. 56
Ibid., XIX. 65
nirgacchatsu priyeṣu pradhanavidhidhiyā dānavendīvarākṣya-strāsasvedāpanītaiḥ kucamukulataṭāskandibāhlīkapaṅkaiḥ/
uttaṅsaiḥ sraṅsamānairatha pṛthuvikasadvepathūdvegayogā-dūhuḥ prāgeva gātraṃ daghadiva niyatādūravaidhavyacihnaṃ// Ibid., XXII. 56
Ibid., XXII. 57