Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

अविद्यमानः क्रमो यत्र तद् अक्रमम्. यथा,

avidyamānaḥ kramo yatra tad akramam. yathā,

(20) The fault called akrama (bad word order) means there is a lack of sequence. For example:

tvaṃ ca pañceṣu-sadṛśo ramyā bhānoś ca sā sutā |
śrutveti vipulāṃ lebhe mudaṃ nanda-suto hariḥ ||

“You are like Cupid, and the Yamunā is delightful.” Upon hearing this, Hari, Nanda’s son, felt great joy.

atra sā ceti ca-kārasya, iti śrutvetīti-śabdasya sthitau kramaḥ. asthāna-sthaṃ padaṃ hi jhaṭity anvayaṃ bodhayati na tv akramam iti tato bhedaḥ.

In this verse, the words ca sā should have been written in proper sequence: sā ca, and similarly śrutvā iti should have been written: iti śrutvā.

The difference between asthāna-stha-pada (wrongly placed word) and akrama is that only the former immediately causes the understanding of the syntactical connection of the words of the sentence.


Another instance of the fault of akrama is the wrong placement of the word iva (like). An example is: bhallīnām iva pāna-karma (Kāvya-prakāśa, verse 200) (Commentary 7.48), which stands for: bhallīnāṃ pāna-karmeva, “like the wetting of arrows.”[1] Often the wrong placement of a word is due to the meter.

Footnotes and references:


aśru-payasā niṣekaṃ kurute tac-ceto-bhuvo bhallīnāṃ pāna-karmevety utprekṣā (Uddyota).

Let's grow together!

I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased sources, definitions and images. Your donation direclty influences the quality and quantity of knowledge, wisdom and spiritual insight the world is exposed to.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: