Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 8.42.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒मां धियं॒ शिक्ष॑माणस्य देव॒ क्रतुं॒ दक्षं॑ वरुण॒ सं शि॑शाधि । ययाति॒ विश्वा॑ दुरि॒ता तरे॑म सु॒तर्मा॑ण॒मधि॒ नावं॑ रुहेम ॥
इमां धियं शिक्षमाणस्य देव क्रतुं दक्षं वरुण सं शिशाधि । ययाति विश्वा दुरिता तरेम सुतर्माणमधि नावं रुहेम ॥
imāṃ dhiyaṃ śikṣamāṇasya deva kratuṃ dakṣaṃ varuṇa saṃ śiśādhi | yayāti viśvā duritā tarema sutarmāṇam adhi nāvaṃ ruhema ||

English translation:

“Divine Varuṇa, animate the sacred acts of me engaging in this your worship; may we ascend thesafe-bearing vessel by which we may cross all difficulties.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Animate the sacred acts: kratum dakṣam = sharpenthe knowledge and power


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): nābhākaḥ kāṇvaḥ [nābhāka kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒माम् । धिय॑म् । शिक्ष॑माणस्य । दे॒व॒ । क्रतु॑म् । दक्ष॑म् । व॒रु॒ण॒ । सम् । शि॒शा॒धि॒ । यया॑ । अति॑ । विश्वा॑ । दुः॒ऽइ॒ता । तरे॑म । सु॒ऽतर्मा॑णम् । अधि॑ । नाव॑म् । रु॒हे॒म॒ ॥
इमाम् । धियम् । शिक्षमाणस्य । देव । क्रतुम् । दक्षम् । वरुण । सम् । शिशाधि । यया । अति । विश्वा । दुःइता । तरेम । सुतर्माणम् । अधि । नावम् । रुहेम ॥
imām | dhiyam | śikṣamāṇasya | deva | kratum | dakṣam | varuṇa | sam | śiśādhi | yayā | ati | viśvā | duḥ-itā | tarema | su-tarmāṇam | adhi | nāvam | ruhema

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.42.3 English analysis of grammar]

imāṃ < imām < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

dhiyaṃ < dhiyam < dhī

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“intelligence; prayer; mind; insight; idea; hymn; purpose; art; knowledge.”

śikṣamāṇasya < śikṣ

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“help; give.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

kratuṃ < kratum < kratu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

dakṣaṃ < dakṣam < dakṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Dakṣa; ability; cock; fitness; will; purpose; disposition; cock.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

śiśādhi < śā

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“sharpen; whet; strengthen.”

yayāti < yayā < yad

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

yayāti < ati


“very; excessively; beyond; excessively.”

viśvā < viśva

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

duritā < durita

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“danger; sin; difficulty; difficulty; evil.”

tarema < tṛ

[verb], plural, Present optative

“traverse; overcome; float; rescue; reach; satisfy.”

sutarmāṇam < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sutarmāṇam < tarmāṇam < tarman

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine




“on; from; accordingly.”

nāvaṃ < nāvam < nau

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“ship; boat; nau [word].”

ruhema < ruh

[verb], plural, Aorist optative

“heal; grow; cicatrize; climb; board; ascend; grow.”

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