Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.47.19

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यु॒जा॒नो ह॒रिता॒ रथे॒ भूरि॒ त्वष्टे॒ह रा॑जति । को वि॒श्वाहा॑ द्विष॒तः पक्ष॑ आसत उ॒तासी॑नेषु सू॒रिषु॑ ॥
युजानो हरिता रथे भूरि त्वष्टेह राजति । को विश्वाहा द्विषतः पक्ष आसत उतासीनेषु सूरिषु ॥
yujāno haritā rathe bhūri tvaṣṭeha rājati | ko viśvāhā dviṣataḥ pakṣa āsata utāsīneṣu sūriṣu ||

English translation:

“Yoking his horses to his car, Tvaṣṭā shines in many plural ces here in the three worlds; who (else), sojourning daily among his present worshippers, is their proector against adversaries?”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

In this ṛca,Tvaṣṭā is an appellative of Indra, the ancient artificer!


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gargaḥ [garga];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यु॒जा॒नः । ह॒रिता॑ । रथे॑ । भूरि॑ । त्वष्टा॑ । इ॒ह । रा॒ज॒ति॒ । कः । वि॒श्वाहा॑ । द्वि॒ष॒तः । पक्षः॑ । आ॒स॒ते॒ । उ॒त । आसी॑नेषु । सू॒रिषु॑ ॥
युजानः । हरिता । रथे । भूरि । त्वष्टा । इह । राजति । कः । विश्वाहा । द्विषतः । पक्षः । आसते । उत । आसीनेषु । सूरिषु ॥
yujānaḥ | haritā | rathe | bhūri | tvaṣṭā | iha | rājati | kaḥ | viśvāhā | dviṣataḥ | pakṣaḥ | āsate | uta | āsīneṣu | sūriṣu

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.47.19 English analysis of grammar]

yujāno < yujānaḥ < yuj

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“mix; use; endow; yoke; accompany; to practice Yoga; connect; hire; administer; compound; affect; add; concentrate; unite; join; prosecute; combine; supply; compound; attach to; appoint; fill; process; mobilize; mount; complement; eat; join; treat; coincide; affect; challenge.”

haritā < harit

[noun], ablative, dual, feminine

“mare; quarter.”

rathe < ratha

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“much; many; much(a); abundant; rich; mighty; distinguished.”

tvaṣṭeha < tvaṣṭā < tvaṣṭṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Tvaṣṭṛ; Viśvakarman; sun.”

tvaṣṭeha < iha


“here; now; in this world; now; below; there; here; just.”

rājati < rāj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“govern; shine; glitter; direct.”

ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”




dviṣataḥ < dviṣ

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“hate; dislike.”

pakṣa < pakṣe < pakṣa

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“Pakṣa; wing; side; pakṣa; assumption; opinion; side; option; pakṣa [word]; side; position; case; feather; faction; parent; one-half; two; contradiction; flank; set.”

āsata < āsate < ās

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“sit; stay; sit down; dwell; lie; lie; exist.”

utāsīneṣu < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

utāsīneṣu < āsīneṣu < ās

[verb noun], locative, plural

“sit; stay; sit down; dwell; lie; lie; exist.”

sūriṣu < sūri

[noun], locative, plural, masculine


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