Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.44.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तं प्र॒त्नथा॑ पू॒र्वथा॑ वि॒श्वथे॒मथा॑ ज्ये॒ष्ठता॑तिं बर्हि॒षदं॑ स्व॒र्विद॑म् । प्र॒ती॒ची॒नं वृ॒जनं॑ दोहसे गि॒राशुं जय॑न्त॒मनु॒ यासु॒ वर्ध॑से ॥
तं प्रत्नथा पूर्वथा विश्वथेमथा ज्येष्ठतातिं बर्हिषदं स्वर्विदम् । प्रतीचीनं वृजनं दोहसे गिराशुं जयन्तमनु यासु वर्धसे ॥
tam pratnathā pūrvathā viśvathemathā jyeṣṭhatātim barhiṣadaṃ svarvidam | pratīcīnaṃ vṛjanaṃ dohase girāśuṃ jayantam anu yāsu vardhase ||

English translation:

“In like manneer as the ancient (sages), those our predecessors, as all sages, and those of the present period (have obtained their wishes by his praise), so do you by praise extract (my desires) from him who is the oldest and best (of the gods), who is seated on the sacred grass, who is cognizant of heaven, coming to our presence, vigorous, swift, victorious, for by such praises you exalt him.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Yajus. 7.12; by such praises you exalt him: Or, anu yāsu vardhase may be applied to Indra, you prosper, Indra, by such praises


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): avatsāraḥ kāśyapa anye ca dṛsṭaliṅgāḥ [avatsāra kāśyapa anye ca dṛsṭaliṅgāḥ];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तम् । प्र॒त्नऽथा॑ । पू॒र्वऽथा॑ । वि॒श्वऽथा॑ । इ॒म्ऽअथा॑ । ज्ये॒ष्ठऽता॑तिम् । ब॒र्हि॒ऽसद॑म् । स्वः॒ऽविद॑म् । प्र॒ती॒ची॒नम् । वृ॒जन॑म् । दो॒ह॒से॒ । गि॒रा । आ॒शुम् । जय॑न्तम् । अनु॑ । यासु॑ । वर्ध॑से ॥
तम् । प्रत्नथा । पूर्वथा । विश्वथा । इम्अथा । ज्येष्ठतातिम् । बर्हिसदम् । स्वःविदम् । प्रतीचीनम् । वृजनम् । दोहसे । गिरा । आशुम् । जयन्तम् । अनु । यासु । वर्धसे ॥
tam | pratna-thā | pūrva-thā | viśva-thā | im-athā | jyeṣṭha-tātim | barhi-sadam | svaḥ-vidam | pratīcīnam | vṛjanam | dohase | girā | āśum | jayantam | anu | yāsu | vardhase

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.44.1 English analysis of grammar]

tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”





viśvathemathā < viśvathā


viśvathemathā < imathā


jyeṣṭhatātim < jyeṣṭhatāti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

barhiṣadaṃ < barhiṣadam < barhiṣad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


svarvidam < svarvid

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

pratīcīnaṃ < pratīcīnam < pratīcīna

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter


vṛjanaṃ < vṛjanam < vṛjana

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“community; settlement.”

dohase < duh

[verb noun]


girāśuṃ < _ < √_



jayantam < ji

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“overcome; cure; win; conquer; control; win; succeed; remove; beat; govern; surpass; suppress.”



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

yāsu < yad

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

vardhase < vṛdh

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“increase; grow; vṛdh; increase; succeed; strengthen; grow up; spread.”

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