Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.38.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒तो हि वां॑ दा॒त्रा सन्ति॒ पूर्वा॒ या पू॒रुभ्य॑स्त्र॒सद॑स्युर्नितो॒शे । क्षे॒त्रा॒सां द॑दथुरुर्वरा॒सां घ॒नं दस्यु॑भ्यो अ॒भिभू॑तिमु॒ग्रम् ॥
उतो हि वां दात्रा सन्ति पूर्वा या पूरुभ्यस्त्रसदस्युर्नितोशे । क्षेत्रासां ददथुरुर्वरासां घनं दस्युभ्यो अभिभूतिमुग्रम् ॥
uto hi vāṃ dātrā santi pūrvā yā pūrubhyas trasadasyur nitośe | kṣetrāsāṃ dadathur urvarāsāṃ ghanaṃ dasyubhyo abhibhūtim ugram ||

English translation:

Trasadasyu has bestowed upon many the ancient (gifts) which were obtained by the liberal (prince) through your (favour, Heaven and Earth) you two have given a horse, a son, a weapon (for the destruction) of the Dasyus, fierce and foe-subduing.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Heaven and earth: the dual pronoun, vām, of you two, implies heaven and earth; you two have given a horse, a son: kṣetrāsām : from kṣetra, land; 

Urvarāsām: urvara, fertile soil;

San = to give


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dyāvāpṛthivyau ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒तो इति॑ । हि । वा॒म् । दा॒त्रा । सन्ति॑ । पूर्वा॑ । या । पू॒रुऽभ्यः॑ । त्र॒सद॑स्युः । नि॒ऽतो॒शे । क्षे॒त्र॒ऽसाम् । दा॒द॒थुः॒ । उ॒र्व॒रा॒ऽसाम् । घ॒नम् । दस्यु॑ऽभ्यः । अ॒भिऽभू॑तिम् । उ॒ग्रम् ॥
उतो इति । हि । वाम् । दात्रा । सन्ति । पूर्वा । या । पूरुभ्यः । त्रसदस्युः । नितोशे । क्षेत्रसाम् । दादथुः । उर्वरासाम् । घनम् । दस्युभ्यः । अभिभूतिम् । उग्रम् ॥
uto iti | hi | vām | dātrā | santi | pūrvā | yā | pūru-bhyaḥ | trasadasyuḥ | ni-tośe | kṣetra-sām | dādathuḥ | urvarāsām | ghanam | dasyu-bhyaḥ | abhi-bhūtim | ugram

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.38.1 English analysis of grammar]

uto < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

uto < u


“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

vāṃ < vām < tvad

[noun], genitive, dual


dātrā < dātra

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“sickle; gift; scythe.”

santi < as

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

pūrvā < pūrva

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“aforesaid(a); antecedent; previous(a); first; eastern; former(a); pūrva [word]; age-old; anterior; bygone; fore(a); predictive; firstborn; easterly; instrumental.”

< yad

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

pūrubhyas < pūrubhyaḥ < pūru

[noun], dative, plural, masculine

“Pūru; Pūru.”

trasadasyur < trasadasyuḥ < trasadasyu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


nitośe < nituś < √tuś

[verb], singular, Present indikative

kṣetrāsāṃ < kṣetrāsām < kṣetrāsā

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

dadathur < dadathuḥ <

[verb], dual, Perfect indicative

“give; add; perform; put; administer; fill into; give; ignite; put on; offer; use; fuel; pour; grant; feed; teach; construct; insert; drip; wrap; pay; hand over; lend; inflict; concentrate; sacrifice; splint; poultice; create.”

urvarāsāṃ < urvarā

[noun], feminine

“field; Urvarā.”

urvarāsāṃ < sām <

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


ghanaṃ < ghanam < ghana

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“abhra; cloud; hammer; ghana; hammer; rainy season; tin; iron; ghana [word]; ghana; nutgrass; ball; phlegm.”

dasyubhyo < dasyubhyaḥ < dasyu

[noun], dative, plural, masculine

“savage; outcast; mugger.”

abhibhūtim < abhibhūti

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“superior; overpowering.”

ugram < ugra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“powerful; awful; dangerous; intense; mighty; potent; colicky; atrocious.”

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