Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 4.23.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॒ हि शु॒रुध॒: सन्ति॑ पू॒र्वीॠ॒तस्य॑ धी॒तिर्वृ॑जि॒नानि॑ हन्ति । ऋ॒तस्य॒ श्लोको॑ बधि॒रा त॑तर्द॒ कर्णा॑ बुधा॒नः शु॒चमा॑न आ॒योः ॥
ऋतस्य हि शुरुधः सन्ति पूर्वीॠतस्य धीतिर्वृजिनानि हन्ति । ऋतस्य श्लोको बधिरा ततर्द कर्णा बुधानः शुचमान आयोः ॥
ṛtasya hi śurudhaḥ santi pūrvīr ṛtasya dhītir vṛjināni hanti | ṛtasya śloko badhirā tatarda karṇā budhānaḥ śucamāna āyoḥ ||

English translation:

“Many are the waters of ṛta; the adoration of ṛta destroys iniquities; the intelligent and brilliant praise of ṛta has opened the deaf (ears) of man.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Ṛta = sacrifice or truth or water; here it may apply to Indra, or to Āditya, or to the three former person nified divinities; the following verses are a succession of changes on the word


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indraṛtadevo vā ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॑ । हि । शु॒रुऽधः॑ । सन्ति॑ । पू॒र्वीः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । धी॒तिः । वृ॒जि॒नानि॑ । ह॒न्ति॒ । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । श्लोकः॑ । ब॒धि॒रा । त॒त॒र्द॒ । कर्णा॑ । बु॒धा॒नः । शु॒चमा॑नः । आ॒योः ॥
ऋतस्य । हि । शुरुधः । सन्ति । पूर्वीः । ऋतस्य । धीतिः । वृजिनानि । हन्ति । ऋतस्य । श्लोकः । बधिरा । ततर्द । कर्णा । बुधानः । शुचमानः । आयोः ॥
ṛtasya | hi | śuru-dhaḥ | santi | pūrvīḥ | ṛtasya | dhītiḥ | vṛjināni | hanti | ṛtasya | ślokaḥ | badhirā | tatarda | karṇā | budhānaḥ | śucamānaḥ | āyoḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.23.8 English analysis of grammar]

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

śurudhaḥ < śurudh

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

santi < as

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

pūrvīr < pūrvīḥ < puru

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“many; much(a); very.”

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

dhītir < dhītiḥ < dhīti

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“thinking; prayer; understanding.”

vṛjināni < vṛjina

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter


hanti < han

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

śloko < ślokaḥ < śloka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Śloka; fame; hymn; śloka [word]; praise; glory; verse.”

badhirā < badhira

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine


tatarda < tṛd

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

karṇā < karṇa

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“ear; Karṇa; karṇa [word]; auricle; fluke; diameter; lobule.”

budhānaḥ < budh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“understand; notice; wake up; observe; detect; attend to; awaken; attend.”

śucamāna < śucamānaḥ < śuc

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“mourn; grieve; flame; glow; burn; repent.”

āyoḥ < āyu

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

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