Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 4.23.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॑ दृ॒ळ्हा ध॒रुणा॑नि सन्ति पु॒रूणि॑ च॒न्द्रा वपु॑षे॒ वपूं॑षि । ऋ॒तेन॑ दी॒र्घमि॑षणन्त॒ पृक्ष॑ ऋ॒तेन॒ गाव॑ ऋ॒तमा वि॑वेशुः ॥
ऋतस्य दृळ्हा धरुणानि सन्ति पुरूणि चन्द्रा वपुषे वपूंषि । ऋतेन दीर्घमिषणन्त पृक्ष ऋतेन गाव ऋतमा विवेशुः ॥
ṛtasya dṛḻhā dharuṇāni santi purūṇi candrā vapuṣe vapūṃṣi | ṛtena dīrgham iṣaṇanta pṛkṣa ṛtena gāva ṛtam ā viveśuḥ ||

English translation:

“Many are the stable, sustaining, delightful forms of the embodied ṛta; the ṛta are (the pious) expectant of food; by ṛta have the kine entered into the sacrifice.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

I.e., as presents made to the officiating priests; the phrase may also mean, the rays of light have entered into the water, gāva ṛtam āviveśuḥ raśmayā udakam āiveśuḥ

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indraṛtadevo vā ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तस्य॑ । दृ॒ळ्हा । ध॒रुणा॑नि । स॒न्ति॒ । पु॒रूणि॑ । च॒न्द्रा । वपु॑षे । वपूं॑षि । ऋ॒तेन॑ । दी॒र्घम् । इ॒ष॒ण॒न्त॒ । पृक्षः॑ । ऋ॒तेन॑ । गावः॑ । ऋ॒तम् । आ । वि॒वे॒शुः॒ ॥
ऋतस्य । दृळ्हा । धरुणानि । सन्ति । पुरूणि । चन्द्रा । वपुषे । वपूंषि । ऋतेन । दीर्घम् । इषणन्त । पृक्षः । ऋतेन । गावः । ऋतम् । आ । विवेशुः ॥
ṛtasya | dṛḷhā | dharuṇāni | santi | purūṇi | candrā | vapuṣe | vapūṃṣi | ṛtena | dīrgham | iṣaṇanta | pṛkṣaḥ | ṛtena | gāvaḥ | ṛtam | ā | viveśuḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.23.9 English analysis of grammar]

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

dṛᄆhā < dṛḍha

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“hard; intense; firm; fixed; resolute; mesomorphic; grim; dṛḍha [word]; rainproof; sturdy; shut; firm; insoluble; strong; tough; tight.”

dharuṇāni < dharuṇa

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“prop; foundation.”

santi < as

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

purūṇi < puru

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“many; much(a); very.”

candrā < candra

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“aglitter(p); shining.”

vapuṣe < vapus

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“body; form; miracle; human body; beauty; look; spectacle; figure; embodiment.”

vapūṃṣi < vapus

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“body; form; miracle; human body; beauty; look; spectacle; figure; embodiment.”

ṛtena < ṛta

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

dīrgham < dīrgha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“long; long; long; large; far; deep; dīrgha [word].”

iṣaṇanta < iṣaṇ

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

pṛkṣa < pṛkṣaḥ < pṛkṣ

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“food; refreshment; power.”

ṛtena < ṛta

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

gāva < gāvaḥ < go

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

ā

[adverb]

“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

viveśuḥ < viś

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“enter; penetrate; settle; settle.”

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