Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.4.6

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ भन्द॑माने उ॒षसा॒ उपा॑के उ॒त स्म॑येते त॒न्वा॒३॒॑ विरू॑पे । यथा॑ नो मि॒त्रो वरु॑णो॒ जुजो॑ष॒दिन्द्रो॑ म॒रुत्वाँ॑ उ॒त वा॒ महो॑भिः ॥
आ भन्दमाने उषसा उपाके उत स्मयेते तन्वा विरूपे । यथा नो मित्रो वरुणो जुजोषदिन्द्रो मरुत्वाँ उत वा महोभिः ॥
ā bhandamāne uṣasā upāke uta smayete tanvā virūpe | yathā no mitro varuṇo jujoṣad indro marutvām̐ uta vā mahobhiḥ ||

English translation:

“May the adored Day and Night, combined or separate, be manifest in bodily form, so that Mitra, Varuṇa, Indra, or (the latter), attended by the Maruts, may rejoice us by their glories.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ [gāthina viśvāmitra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): āpriyaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ । भन्द॑माने॒ इति॑ । उ॒षसौ॑ । उपा॑के॒ इति॑ । उ॒त । स्म॒ये॒ते॒ इति॑ । त॒न्वा॑ । विरू॑पे॒ इति॒ विऽरू॑पे । यथा॑ । नः॒ । मि॒त्रः । वरु॑णः । जुजो॑षत् । इन्द्रः॑ । म॒रुत्वा॑न् । उ॒त । वा॒ । महः॑ऽभिः ॥
आ । भन्दमाने इति । उषसौ । उपाके इति । उत । स्मयेते इति । तन्वा । विरूपे इति विरूपे । यथा । नः । मित्रः । वरुणः । जुजोषत् । इन्द्रः । मरुत्वान् । उत । वा । महःभिः ॥
ā | bhandamāneiti | uṣasau | upāke iti | uta | smayeteiti | tanvā | virūpeitivi-rūpe | yathā | naḥ | mitraḥ | varuṇaḥ | jujoṣat | indraḥ | marutvān | uta | vā | mahaḥ-bhiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.4.6 English analysis of grammar]



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

bhandamāne < bhand

[verb noun], nominative, dual

uṣasā < uṣasau < uṣas

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”

upāke < upāka

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

smayete < smi

[verb], dual, Present indikative


tanvā < tanū

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“body; self; own(a); person; form.”

virūpe < virūpa

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“ugly; maimed; grotesque.”



“equally; as; so that; like; how; yathā [word]; that; wherein.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

mitro < mitraḥ < mitra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; Mitra; mitra [word]; sun; ally.”

varuṇo < varuṇaḥ < varuṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

jujoṣad < jujoṣat < juṣ

[verb], singular, Perfect conjunctive (subj.)

“enjoy; endow; possess; frequent; accompany; induce; consume; approve; affect; attend; befit; blend; contract.”

indro < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

marutvāṃ < marutvat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”


“or; optionally; either.”

mahobhiḥ < mahas

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“greatness; festival; glory; reward; gladness.”

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