Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.4.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दैव्या॒ होता॑रा प्रथ॒मा न्यृ॑ञ्जे स॒प्त पृ॒क्षास॑: स्व॒धया॑ मदन्ति । ऋ॒तं शंस॑न्त ऋ॒तमित्त आ॑हु॒रनु॑ व्र॒तं व्र॑त॒पा दीध्या॑नाः ॥
दैव्या होतारा प्रथमा न्यृञ्जे सप्त पृक्षासः स्वधया मदन्ति । ऋतं शंसन्त ऋतमित्त आहुरनु व्रतं व्रतपा दीध्यानाः ॥
daivyā hotārā prathamā ny ṛñje sapta pṛkṣāsaḥ svadhayā madanti | ṛtaṃ śaṃsanta ṛtam it ta āhur anu vrataṃ vratapā dīdhyānāḥ ||

English translation:

“I propitiate the two chief divine invokers of the gods; the seven offerers of (sacrificial) food, expectant of water, gratify (Agni) with oblations; the illustrious observers of sacred rites have saluted him in every ceremony as (identifiable), verily, with water.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

As identifiable with water: ṛtam it ta āhuḥ = agnim eva ṛtabhūtam āhuḥ, they have called Agni, verily, ṛta; ṛta is usually rendered water but  it may mean truth; in the preceding phrase, ṛtam śansanta = udakam, desirous or expectant of water


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ [gāthina viśvāmitra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): āpriyaḥ;
Chandas (meter): svarāṭpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दैव्या॑ । होता॑रा । प्र॒थ॒मा । नि । ऋ॒ञ्जे॒ । स॒प्त । पृ॒क्षासः॑ । स्व॒धया॑ । म॒द॒न्ति॒ । ऋ॒तम् । शंस॑न्तः । ऋ॒तम् । इत् । ते । आ॒हुः॒ । अनु॑ । व्र॒तम् । व्र॒त॒ऽपाः । दीध्या॑नाः ॥
दैव्या । होतारा । प्रथमा । नि । ऋञ्जे । सप्त । पृक्षासः । स्वधया । मदन्ति । ऋतम् । शंसन्तः । ऋतम् । इत् । ते । आहुः । अनु । व्रतम् । व्रतपाः । दीध्यानाः ॥
daivyā | hotārā | prathamā | ni | ṛñje | sapta | pṛkṣāsaḥ | svadhayā | madanti | ṛtam | śaṃsantaḥ | ṛtam | it | te | āhuḥ | anu | vratam | vrata-pāḥ | dīdhyānāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.4.7 English analysis of grammar]

daivyā < daivya

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“divine; divine; celestial.”

hotārā < hotṛ

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine


prathamā < prathama

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

ny < ni


“back; down.”

ṛñje < ṛj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

sapta < saptan

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“seven; seventh.”

pṛkṣāsaḥ < pṛkṣa

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“strong; full of life.”

svadhayā < svadhā

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“free will; offering; libation; nature; svadhā [word]; comfort; power.”

madanti < mad

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“rut; intoxicate; delight; revel; rejoice; drink; ramp; exult.”

ṛtaṃ < ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

śaṃsanta < śaṃsantaḥ < śaṃs

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“recommend; tell; praise; approve; communicate; recite; commend; bode; name; agree.”

ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“timely; honest.”

it < id


“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

ta < te < tad

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

āhur < āhuḥ < ah

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“describe; state; say; enumerate; call; name; teach; tell; deem; explain; say; define.”



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

vrataṃ < vratam < vrata

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

vratapā < vrata

[noun], neuter

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

vratapā < pāḥ <

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


dīdhyānāḥ < dhī

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“think; desire; chew over.”

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