Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.127.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निं होता॑रं मन्ये॒ दास्व॑न्तं॒ वसुं॑ सू॒नुं सह॑सो जा॒तवे॑दसं॒ विप्रं॒ न जा॒तवे॑दसम् । य ऊ॒र्ध्वया॑ स्वध्व॒रो दे॒वो दे॒वाच्या॑ कृ॒पा । घृ॒तस्य॒ विभ्रा॑ष्टि॒मनु॑ वष्टि शो॒चिषा॒जुह्वा॑नस्य स॒र्पिष॑: ॥
अग्निं होतारं मन्ये दास्वन्तं वसुं सूनुं सहसो जातवेदसं विप्रं न जातवेदसम् । य ऊर्ध्वया स्वध्वरो देवो देवाच्या कृपा । घृतस्य विभ्राष्टिमनु वष्टि शोचिषाजुह्वानस्य सर्पिषः ॥
agniṃ hotāram manye dāsvantaṃ vasuṃ sūnuṃ sahaso jātavedasaṃ vipraṃ na jātavedasam | ya ūrdhvayā svadhvaro devo devācyā kṛpā | ghṛtasya vibhrāṣṭim anu vaṣṭi śociṣājuhvānasya sarpiṣaḥ ||

English translation:

“I venerate Agni, the invoker (of the gods), the munificent, the giver of dwellings, the son of strength; he who knows all that exists, like a sage who is endowed with knowledge; who, the divine regenerator of sacrifices, through his lofty and reverntial devotion, covets for the gods the blaze of the liquefied butter which is offered in oblation with his flames.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Atyaṣṭi is a stanza of four lines, and has 68 syllables. The metrical system of the Vedas, or Chandas has a graduated series of metres. Utkṛti has 104 syllables and descends by a diminution of four through eight classes to atyaṣṭi, the ninth, which gives it 68 syllables. In this sūkta, the hymns are arranged in three verses and the number fo syllables vary from 57 to 70, the average being 65 to 67


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parucchepo daivodāsiḥ [parucchepa daivodāsi];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): aṣṭiḥ ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निम् । होता॑रम् । म॒न्ये॒ । दास्व॑न्तम् । वसु॑म् । सू॒नुम् । सह॑सः । जा॒तऽवे॑दसम् । विप्र॑म् । न । जा॒तऽवे॑दसम् । यः । ऊ॒र्ध्वया॑ । सु॒ऽअ॒ध्व॒रः । दे॒वः । दे॒वाच्या॑ । कृ॒पा । घृ॒तस्य॑ । विऽभ्रा॑ष्टिम् । अनु॑ । व॒ष्टि॒ । शो॒चिषा॑ । आ॒ऽजुह्वा॑नस्य । स॒र्पिषः॑ ॥
अग्निम् । होतारम् । मन्ये । दास्वन्तम् । वसुम् । सूनुम् । सहसः । जातवेदसम् । विप्रम् । न । जातवेदसम् । यः । ऊर्ध्वया । सुअध्वरः । देवः । देवाच्या । कृपा । घृतस्य । विभ्राष्टिम् । अनु । वष्टि । शोचिषा । आजुह्वानस्य । सर्पिषः ॥
agnim | hotāram | manye | dāsvantam | vasum | sūnum | sahasaḥ | jāta-vedasam | vipram | na | jāta-vedasam | yaḥ | ūrdhvayā | su-adhvaraḥ | devaḥ | devācyā | kṛpā | ghṛtasya | vi-bhrāṣṭim | anu | vaṣṭi | śociṣā | ājuhvānasya | sarpiṣaḥa

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.127.1 English analysis of grammar]

agniṃ < agnim < agni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

hotāram < hotṛ

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


manye < man

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“think of; name; believe; teach; honor; deem; recommend; approve; think; define; call; respect; believe; enumerate; understand; see; describe.”

dāsvantaṃ < dāsvantam < dāsvat

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


vasuṃ < vasum < vasu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“good; good; benign; vasu [word].”

sūnuṃ < sūnum < sūnu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“son; offspring.”

sahaso < sahasaḥ < sahas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

jātavedasaṃ < jātavedasam < jātavedas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Agni; fire.”

vipraṃ < vipram < vipra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Brahmin; poet; singer; priest; guru; Vipra.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

jātavedasam < jātavedas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Agni; fire.”

ya < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

ūrdhvayā < ūrdhva

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“upper; up(a); upper; upward; erect; more(a); raised; ūrdhva [word]; acclivitous; overturned; loud; eminent; high.”

svadhvaro < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

svadhvaro < adhvaraḥ < adhvara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”

devo < devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

devācyā < devāñc

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

kṛpā < kṛp

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine


ghṛtasya < ghṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“ghee; fat.”

vibhrāṣṭim < vibhrāṣṭi

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

vaṣṭi < vaś

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“desire; agree; call; care; like; love.”

śociṣājuhvānasya < śociṣā < śocis

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“fire; flare; burn; radiance.”

śociṣājuhvānasya < ājuhvānasya < āhu < √hu

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“sacrifice; sprinkle.”

sarpiṣaḥ < sarpis

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“ghee; clarified butter; sarpiḥprameha.”

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