Vakrokti, aka: Vakrōkti, Vakra-ukti; 4 Definition(s)
Vakrokti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Vakrokti (वक्रोक्ति) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The historical development of vakraki is interesting. The ancient Ālaṃkārika Bhāmaha has treated vakrokti in his Kāvyālaṃkāra (II/85). He considers vakrokti as a general principle underline every alaṃkāra. According to Bhāmaha this vakrokti is identical with atiśayokti. Ānandavardhanain his Dhvanyāloka has mentioned the view of Bhāmaha. Daṇḍin has divided the alaṃkāras into two types—svabhāvokti and vakrokti.
According to Mammaṭa (K.P. IX/103) when a speaker says something in one sense and the hearer accepts it in a different sense, due to the working of paronomasia (śleṣa) andintonation (kākū), it is the figure vakrokti. Ruyyaka and Viśvanāha have treated this figure in the same line. But while Mammaṭa and Viśvanātha have dealt with this figure as a śabdālaṃkāra, Ruyyaka has treated it as an arthālaṃkāra.
Cirañjīva’s definition of vakrokti is as follows—“vakroktiḥ śleṣakākubhyāṃ vācyārthāntarakalpane”. According to Cirañjīva when a sense expressed by the speaker is taken in another sense different from the first one by the hearer due to paronomasia and intonation it is the figure vakrokti. In this figure it is found that a speaker has intended to express one meaning and the hearer acceptes its another sense through the influence of paronomasia or intonation.
Example of the vakraki-alaṃkāra:—
mā gā viṣādaṃ mugdhākṣi! smarārtā yāmi kaṃ sakhi! caritaṃ tava paśyāmi smarāmi tu na kañcana ||
“Oh you with fascinating eyes! don’t be dejected. Oh friend to whom I who is lovesick shall go. I am watching your condition but remembering none”.
Notes: Requested by the female friend the separated lady says that she will take resort to Mahadeva who is the destroyer of worldly desire and none other than Mahādeva. She says smarārta yāmi kaṃ, sakhi, the actual meaning is that whom shall I who is lovesick shall resort to. Here the words smarārtā yāmi kaṃ, has been taken as smara ārtā—or remember him who is yāmi kaṃ the protector of the distressed. Here we also find the use of paronomasia ślesa and the meaning intended to be expressed by the speaker has been twisted. So this is an example of the figure vakrokti based on ślesa.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Languages of India and abroad
vakrōkti (वक्रोक्ति).—f S Perverse speech: also equivoque, double entendre, sarcasm; covert expression of some sense other than that which is appropriate to the language employed.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vakrōkti (वक्रोक्ति).—f Perverse speech; double entendre.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Vakrokti (वक्रोक्ति).—f. a figure of speech consisting in the use of evasive speech or reply, either by means of a pun, or by an affected change of tone; Mammaṭa thus defines it :-यदुक्तमन्यथा वाक्यमन्यथा- न्येन योज्यते । श्लेषेण काक्वा वा ज्ञेया सा वक्रोक्तिस्तथा द्विधा (yaduktamanyathā vākyamanyathā- nyena yojyate | śleṣeṇa kākvā vā jñeyā sā vakroktistathā dvidhā) K. P.9; for example see the opening stanza in Mu. (dhanyā keyaṃ sthitā te &c.).
2) equivocation, insinuation, inuendo; सुबन्धुर्बाणभट्टश्च कविराज इति त्रयः । वक्रोक्तिमार्गनिपुणाश्चतुर्थो विद्यते न वा (subandhurbāṇabhaṭṭaśca kavirāja iti trayaḥ | vakroktimārganipuṇāścaturtho vidyate na vā) ||.
Derivable forms: vakroktiḥ (वक्रोक्तिः).
Vakrokti is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vakra and ukti (उक्ति).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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