Svatman, Svātman, Sva-atma, Svātmā, Svatma, Sva-atman: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Svatman means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Svātman (स्वात्मन्) refers to “one’s own self”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.21 (“Nārada instructs Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā said to Nārada: “[...] When Śiva had vanished after burning Kāma, Pārvatī became extremely agitated due to His separation. She did not attain pleasure anywhere. Returning to her father’s abode and meeting her mother, Śivā, the daughter of the mountain, considered herself [i.e., svātman] born again. She cursed her own beauty. She said to herself. ‘O, I am doomed’. The daughter of the lord of mountains did not regain composure though consoled and assuaged by the maids. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Svātman (स्वात्मन्) refers to “one’s own self”, as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “[...] The Mantrin, intent on attaining all manner of special powers, should perform the observance for the pāśupatāstra resolutely dressed in multi-coloured garments and with multi-coloured garlands and unguents. And upon the completion of one or another of these observances, he should pour upon himself (svātman) Śiva-water that has been consecrated by recitation of his mantra over it from a pot. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Svātman (स्वात्मन्) refers to “(being one with) one’s self”, according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 22.11]—“[Śiva is] he who exists in a fixed condition, who brings about all conditions [in all] time[s] and direction[s] but is not touched by [those conditions]. He controls them. He is their leader, [he leads] quickly, he wishes it, and he quickly brings [that which is wished for into being. He] projects [all conditions] outward and he also causes them to be made one with himself (svātman-sātkārakṛt) [internally, inside his consciousness]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaiva philosophy

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Svātman (स्वात्मन्) refers to “(that which is manifest in) itself”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.131-132.—Accordingly, “[...] For this very reason, in our system the [Buddhist] externalist’s claim that a concept involves no real manifestation cannot be accepted at all: since the proponent of the theory that cognition has aspects says that a concept is [immediately] manifest in itself (svātmanvikalpaḥ svātmani) [insofar as every cognition is immediately aware of itself,] even though with respect to the object, [this concept] is a [mere] determination, how could it have a nonexistent manifestation? So enough with this”.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Svātman (स्वात्मन्) refers to “one’s own self”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] When the marvelous sun of true devotion to you rises, the lotus of my heart is inflamed through true emotion. In it always resides, out of respect, the good fortune of liberation that is coveted by all. Having attained the strength of true intelligence through Jñānasvāmin, I know what there is to know and everywhere contemplate my own self  (svātman-bhāvin). I, Sāhib Kaula, have composed this hymn to the lineage deity Śārikā, which contains the construction of her Mantra. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Svatman in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Svātma (स्वात्म) refers to “one’s own self”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] By means of an absorption for half a day, the light of his own self (svātma-jyotis) shines. Just like the sun shines forth with its [own] rays of light, the Yogin shines forth [and illuminates] the world. [...]”.

2) Svātmā (स्वात्मा) refers to “one’s own self”, according to the Yogabīja 150cd-151.—Accordingly: “Then, O goddess, when the union [of the individual self with the supreme self] has been accomplished, the mind dissolves. The breath becomes steady upon the arising of union in absorption (i.e., Layayoga). Because of the absorption, [transcendental] happiness, the highest state, whose bliss is of one’s own self (svātmā-ānanda), is obtained”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svātman (स्वात्मन्).—[masculine] one’s own self or nature.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svātman (स्वात्मन्):—[from sva] a m. o°’s own self, o°’s self (= reflexive [pronoun]), o°’s own nature (ma-tā f.), [Nṛsiṃha-tāpanīya-upaniṣad; Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

2) b etc. See p. 1277, col. 2.

[Sanskrit to German]

Svatman in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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