Smrityupasthana, aka: Smṛtyupasthāna, Smriti-upasthana; 3 Definition(s)
Smrityupasthana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Smṛtyupasthāna can be transliterated into English as Smrtyupasthana or Smrityupasthana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Smṛtyupasthāna (स्मृत्युपस्थान) refers to the “foundations of mindfulness” and represents one of the seven classes of the thirty-seven auxiliaries to enlightenment (bodhipākṣika), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI.—Accordingly, “the dharmas where mindfulness (smṛti) is focused (upatiṣṭhati) on the objects of knowledge (prajñālambana) are called “foundations of mindfulness” (smṛtyupasthāna)”.
Also, “thus, when the Yogin goes to the teacher (Ācārya) and hears the teaching on the path (mārgadharma) from him, first he uses his mindfulness (smṛti) to retain (dhāraṇa) this teaching: that moment is called ‘foundation of mindfulness’ (smṛtyupasthāna)”.
In order to destroy these four mistakes, the Buddha preached the four foundations of mindfulness:
- to destroy the mistake about purity (śuciviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on the body (kāya-smṛtyupasthāna);
- to destroy the mistake on happiness (sukhaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on feelings (vedanā-smṛtyupasthāna);
- to destroy the mistake on permanence (nityaviparyāsa), he preaches mindfulness on the mind (citta-smṛtyupasthāna);
- to destroy the mistake on the self (ātmaviparyāsa), he preaches the foundation of mindfulness on dharmas (dharma-smṛtyupasthāna).
It is for this reason that he preached four, no more and no less.
Further, the four foundations of mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna) are of three kinds:
- mindfulness in itself (svabhāva-smṛtyupasthāna);
- mindfulness by connection (saṃsarga-smṛtyupasthāna);
- mindfulness as object (ālambana-smṛtyupasthāna).
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
India history and geogprahy
Smṛty-upasthāna.—cf. satipaṭṭhāna (EI 5), Buddhist; four in number. Note: smṛty-upasthāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Smṛtyupasthāna (स्मृत्युपस्थान).—nt. (= Pali satipaṭṭhāna, which, as Childers says, represents sati-(u)pa° by MIndic saṃdhi), application of mentality, of awareness (applications de mé- moire, LaV-P. AbhidhK. vi.153; see the foll. pages); Tibetan dran pa (= smṛti) ñe bar bzhag pa (application); Chin. place or location of smṛti; normally there are (1) four such (same in Pali): listed Mvy 952—956 as kāya-, vedanā-, citta-, dharma-(conditions of existence)-smṛ°; so, with full discussion of each item, Śikṣ 228.9 ff. (the four terms 228.11; 232.6; 233.15; 236.5); the true nature of each term must be carefully reflected on; a fuller terminology, paralleled in Pali (kāyānupassanā- etc.), is kāye kāyānu- paśyanā-smṛ° Bbh 259.21 (compare 25 evam avaśiṣṭāni smṛ° °nāni); so, with °nudarśa- (v.l. °nudarśī, n. sg. of °śin, showing confusion with the KP formula, below) instead of °nupaśyanā- Dharmas 44; a slightly different formula (compare Pali e.g. DN ii.290.12 ff.), kāye kāyānupaśyī viharati na ca kāye kāyānupaśyanāyām ātmyadṛṣṭyāṃ patati KP 95.2, and similarly with the other three in ff.; these four are listed first among the 37 bodhipākṣika (q.v., or the like) dharma, Dharmas 43; LV 8.5; 181.17 (here at end of list of bodhipakṣa-dharma is erroneously added ārya- satya, but several mss. correctly omit satya); 426.7; Divy 208.7; not in such a list, Śikṣ 105.13; (2) also three, more exactly āveṇika (q.v.) smṛ° of a Buddha: trīṇy āveṇikāni smṛ° Mvy 187, listed 188—190 as śuśrūṣamāṇeṣu (aśuśrū°, śuśrūṣamāṇāśuśrū°) samacittatā, i.e. Buddha is neither elated nor depressed when his audience is responsive, unresponsive, or partly both, compare Bbh 403.10 ff., 15; men- tioned but not listed Divy 182.20; Av i.7.5; and, without the word āveṇika, tribhiḥ smṛ° Divy 126.13 (that word is lacking also Bbh 403.10 ff.); smṛ° mentioned among āveṇika-buddha-dharma Bbh 230.14; (3) acc. to AbhidhK. LaV-P. vi.159 smṛ° is triple, svabhāva- (en soi; this is defined simply as = prajñā), saṃsarga- (par connexion), and ālambana- (en qualité d'objet); the two latter defined 160; this distinction I have not noted elsewhere.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 4 books and stories containing Smrityupasthana, Smṛtyupasthāna or Smriti-upasthana. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
E.2. The Four Right Efforts (samyakpradhāna) < [Abhidharma auxiliaries (E): Detailed study of the auxiliaries]
Abhidharma auxiliaries (A): Number of auxiliaries < [Part 2 - The auxiliaries according to the Abhidharma]
Abhidharma auxiliaries (D): Order of the thirty-seven auxiliaries < [Part 2 - The auxiliaries according to the Abhidharma]
Buddhacarita (by Charles Willemen)
A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms (by William Edward Soothill)