The Mahavastu (great story)

by J. J. Jones | 1949 | 502,133 words | ISBN-10: 086013041X

This page describes ordination of maha-kashyapa which is Chapter VII of the English translation of the Mahavastu (“great story”), dating to the 2nd-century BC. This work belongs to the Mahasanghika school of early Buddhism and contains narrative stories of the Buddha’s former lives, such as Apadanas, Jatakas and more..

Chapter VII - The ordination of Mahā-Kāśyapa

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Exalted One’s pupil, the venerable Ānanda, was touring Magadha, accompanied by a large crowd of five hundred monks. He made for Rājagṛha in Magadha, and when he had reached it he stayed there in the Bamboo Grove at Kalandakanivāpa.[1]

Now just then thirty of those who had resided with[2] the venerable Ānanda renounced his teaching, and having thus betrayed their frailty they reverted to low things[3] in the pursuit of sensual pleasures.[4] The venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa heard this.[5]

Then the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa went to the venerable Ānanda, and, having exchanged[6] cordial greetings[7] with him, sat down to one side. And as he thus sat down to one side the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa said to Ānanda. “I should like to question the venerable Ānanda on a certain matter,[8] (48) if[9] he give me leave[10] to set forth the question.”

When this had been said, the venerable Ānanda replied to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, saying, “O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, ask what you will, and when I have heard your question I shall answer it.” Then[11] the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa said to the venerable Ānanda, “What, think you, were the several advantages which the Tathāgata, Arhan and perfect Buddha saw in prohibiting disciples from eating in a crowd and prescribing that they should eat in groups of three?[3] The venerable Ānanda replied to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa and said, “I would come from far away, O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, to put a question to you on this very topic. Well would it be if the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa made his interpretation clear.”

The venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa replied to the venerable Ānanda, and said, “The Tathāgata, Arhan and perfect Buddha saw two[13] advantages when he prohibited his disciples from eating in a crowd and prescribed that they eat in groups of three. What two? It conduces to the protection, safeguarding and comfort[14] of families, and to the breaking up of cliques of wicked men, stopping them from banding together out of greed and from causing dispute, wrangling, squabbling, quarrelling, contention and mischief in the Saṅgha. It was because he saw these two advantages, O venerable Ānanda, that the Tathāgata, Arhan and perfect Buddha prohibited his disciples from eating in a crowd, and prescribed that they eat in groups of three. And here are you, O venerable Ānanda, going the rounds of families,[15] with this young, fresh and tender party, troops of fellow-students in the Brahma-life,[16] newly ordained monks, theras, and those of middle status,[17] who have no guard on the doors of their senses, who know no moderation in food, who are ever unused to the exercise of vigilance[18] and are irresponsible. It seems to me that you are like one destroying the harvest.[19] You are but a youngster; you do not know moderation.”[20]

Then the venerable Ānanda said to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Though, (49) O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, there are grey hairs growing on my head, you yet think that you should speak to me as to a youngster.”[21] A second and a third time did the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa say to the venerable Ānanda, “And here are you, O venerable Ānanda, going the rounds of families with this party who have no guard on the doors of their senses, who know no moderation in food, who are ever unused to vigilance and are irresponsible. It seems to me you are like one destroying the harvest. You are but a youngster; you do not know moderation.”[22] And a second and a third time did the venerable Ānanda reply to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Though there are grey hairs growing on my head, yet the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa thinks that he should thrice speak to me as to a youngster.”

Now on that occasion the nun Sthūlanandā[23] was standing not far from the venerable Ānanda, and she said to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Why does the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, who formerly belonged to another sect, think it fit thrice to speak as to a youngster to the venerable Ānanda, the sage of Videha,[24] the Exalted One’s servitor, the Exalted One’s attendant, the recipient of the right rules[25] direct from the Exalted One’s mouth?” Then the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa said to the venerable Ānanda, “This sister here, O venerable Ānanda, spoke out of thoughtlessness and conceit when she asked that question.”[26] The venerable Ānanda said to the venerable

Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Forgive me, O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, for I am foolish, womanish,[27] witless, and lacking in common-sense.”[28] A second and a third time did the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa say to the venerable Ānanda, “This sister here, (50) O venerable Ānanda, spoke out of thoughtlessness and conceit when she asked that question.” And a (second and a) third time did the venerable Ānanda say to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Forgive me, O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, for I am foolish, womanish, witless, and lacking in common sense.”

Then the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa said to the venerable Ānanda, “I am not aware, O venerable Ānanda, that, when I first embraced the religious life, I acknowledged[29] any master outside of and other than this Exalted One, Tathāgata, Arhan, and perfect Buddha. When, O venerable Ānanda, I[30] first embraced the religious life, I thought to myself, ‘Home life is cramped, full of defilements.[31] The life of religion is in the open air.[32] It is not possible while dwelling in the midst of home life to live the completely bright,[33] blameless, pure, the entirely clean Brahma-life. Let me now then leave home and take up the homeless life of religion.’ So then, O venerable Ānanda, I left my sumptuous[34] home, renounced my eighty cartloads of gold, my five hundred bondsmen, my five hundred bondswomen, my five hundred head of cattle, my five hundred fields and villages, my nine hundred and ninety-nine ploughs, goodly and shiny ploughshares made at Kapila.[35] And, taking my one patched[36] cotton cloak with me, I wandered out in quest of[37] whatever arhans there might be in the world.

“Now at that time, O venerable Ānanda, there was no other arhan anywhere in the world but this Exalted One and perfect Buddha. And, O venerable Ānanda, when I had thus taken up the life of a wanderer, at the end of a full year’s time I beheld the Exalted One in Rājagṛha at the Bahuputraka shrine.[38] And when I saw him there came to me the unambiguous[39] awareness that I was looking on the perfect Buddha, on the Exalted One, who was all-knowing, all-seeing, and possessed of absolute perfect knowledge.

(51) “Then, O venerable Ānanda, I approached the Exalted One, bowed my head at his feet and stood to one side. And as I thus stood to one side, I said to tne Exalted One, ‘Lord, thou art my Master; I am thy disciple, O Sugata.’ When I had thus spoken, O venerable Ānanda, the Exalted One said to me, ‘Even so, O Kāśyapa, I am your Master; you are my disciple. If a man should accept a disciple in complete possession of his mind,[40] and then, though he was not perfectly enlightened, should claim to be so; though not allknowing, should claim to be so; though not all-seeing, should claim to be so; though he was limited in knowledge and insight, should claim to have absolute knowledge and insight, his head would be split in seven.[41] As for me, O Kāśyapa, I claim to be perfectly enlightened, because I am so; I claim to be all-knowing, because I am so; I claim to be all-seeing, because I am so; 1 claim to have absolute knowledge and insight, because I have them. Again, O Kāśyapa, I preach the dharma to my disciples out of my special knowledge,[42] not out of ignorance. I preach to my disciples the dharma that is well-grounded,[43] not the dharma that is groundless.[44] I preach to my disciples the dharma that is reasoned,[45] not the dharma that is unreasoned.[46] Therefore, O Kāśyapa, as I am one who preaches the dharma to his disciples out of his special knowledge, not out of ignorance; who preaches to his disciples the dharma that is well-grounded, not the dharma that is groundless; who preaches to his disciples the dharma that is reasoned, not the dharma that is unreasoned, I say that you should be given exhortation[47] and instruction. Therefore you must train yourself in this respect, O Kāśyapa. You will say (52) ‘Shall I not then[48] abide restrained by the restraint of the disciplinary rules,[49] pasturing in the field of good conduct,[50] discerning the peril of the minutest faults.[51] Shall I not adopt and practise the moral precepts, and, pure in deed of act, speech and thought, live a life of complete purity?’

“So you must train yourself, O Kāśyapa. Therefore you must train yourself in this respect, O Kāśyapa. You will say, ‘Shall I not then live with the doors of my six senses well-guarded,[52] mindful of care, mindful of kindness,[53] abiding in steadfastness, discerning danger,[54] wise as to the way out,[55] and endued with an unsullied heart? When I see an object with my eye I shall not make it an object of thought[56] nor give attention to its details.[57] Inasmuch as when I live unrestrained as to the faculty of sight, covetousness,[58] discontent and several other sinful and wrong states overflow[59] the heart, I will undertake to restrain myself from these and take care against them, and display restraint with regard to the faculty of sight.’ Thus must you train yourself, O Kāśyapa. You will say, ‘When I hear sounds with my ears, smell scents with my nose, taste flavours with my tongue, touch tangible things with my body, and cognise mental objects with my mind,[60]I shall abide without making them the object of thought or occupying myself with their details. Inasmuch as when I abide unrestrained as to the faculty of mind,[61] covetousness, discontent and several other sinful and wrong states overflow the heart. I will undertake to restrain myself from these and guard the faculty of mind and abide restrained as to the faculty of mind.’ Thus, O Kāśyapa, must you train yourself. Therefore, O Kāśyapa, you must train yourself in this respect: you will say, “Have I not then the comforting[62] application of mindfulness with regard to the body,[63] that the body which I shall give up is not one that is permanently assembled.’[64] Thus, O Kāśyapa, must you train yourself. Therefore, O Kāśyapa, you must train yourself in this respect. You will say, ‘Shall I not then achieve[65] all the good states there are, for the sake of taming and controlling the self, and for the sake of utter release?’[66] Thus must you train yourself, O Kāśyapa. Therefore you must train yourself in this respect, O Kāśyapa. (53) You will say, ‘Shall I not find in the four assemblies[67] exceeding great love and respect, modesty and scrupulousness,[68] and ready opportunity for development’:[69] Thus, O Kāśyapa, must you train yourself. Therefore you must train yourself, in this respect, O Kāśyapa. You will say, ‘Shall I not then abide with a discernment of[70] the uprising and of the cessation of the five skandhas on which existence thrives? I shall discern that this is material form, this is the uprising of material form, this is the cessation of material form; this is feeling, this is the uprising of feeling, this is the cessation of feeling; this is perception, this is the uprising of perception, this is the cessation of perception; these are the saṃskāras,[71] this is the uprising of the saṃskāras, this is the cessation of the saṃskāras; this is consciousness, this is the uprising of consciousness, this is the cessation of consciousness.’ Thus, O Kāśyapa, must you train yourself.”

“So, O venerable Ānanda, when I bad been given this exhortation by the Exalted One, for eight days I was a probationer[72] student, and on the ninth day I attained[73] perfect knowledge.[74]

“And when, O venerable Ānanda, he had given me this exhortation, the Exalted One rose up from his seat and walked away. And I, O venerable Ānanda, followed close on the heels[75] of the Exalted One. And as I did so, this thought occurred to me: ‘Behold, the Exalted One will turn aside from the roadway and lean against the trunk of some tree. I shall spread out my patched[76] cotton under-robe for the Exalted One.’ And, O venerable Ānanda, the Exalted One, aware that I had such a thought, stepped aside from the roadway and stood leaning against the trunk of a tree. I then spread out[77] my patched cotton under-robe for the Exalted One, and he sat down on the seat thus prepared for him. When he had sat down, O venerable Ānanda, the Exalted One spoke and said, ‘Friendly (54) indeed,[78] O Kāśyapa, is this patched cotton under-robe; it is soft, of good texture,[79] exquisite,[80] delicate, light, well-made, fine, splendid and comfortable.’ And I, O venerable Ānanda, said to the Exalted One, ‘Well-won gain would it be for me, Lord, if the Exalted One were to accept this patched cotton under-robe of nine.’

“Then the Exalted One said to me, ‘Do you wish, O Kāśyapa, in return[81] to wear in the presence of the Tathāgata this under-robe of mine that is made of hempen rags[82]?’ And I, O venerable Ānanda, replied to the Exalted One, ‘Well-won gain would it be for me, Lord, if the Exalted One were to give me his under-robe tíiat is made of hempen rags.’ The Exalted One, O venerable Ānanda, gave me his underrobe made of hempen rags and I accepted it from him.

“Now if, O venerable Ānanda, men of right speech were to say that a disciple received from his Master, the Exalted One, an under-robe of hempen rags, those men of right speech would be saying what is a fact. And why? I, O venerable Ānanda, am a disciple who received an under-robe of hempen rags from the Master. And when, O venerable Ānanda, men of right speech should say that the Exalted One has a genuine[83] son, (55) born of the dharma, created by the dharma, an heir as to the dharma, not an heir as to the flesh,[84] these men of right speech would be saying what is a fact. And why? I, O venerable Ānanda, am a genuine son of the Exalted One, born of the dharma, created by the dharma, an heir as to the dharma, not an heir as to the flesh.

“He who could imagine that my three knowledges,[85] my six superknowledges[86] and my mastery of the powers[87] could be hidden away, could just as well imagine that a sixty years old elephant could be hidden by a palm-leaf.[88] He who could imagine that I could hide away my three knowledges, my six superknowledges and my mastery of the powers, could just as well imagine that the flow of the Ganges river could be checked by a handful of dust. He who could imagine that my three knowledges, my six superknowledges and my mastery of the powers could be hidden away, could just as well imagine that the wind could be imprisoned in a net. He who could imagine that my three knowledges, my six superknowledges and my mastery of the powers could be hidden away, could just as well magine that the five-finger mark[89] could be imprinted on the air.

“And now, O venerable Ānanda, whosoever of these five hundred monks harbours doubt or mistrust of me, let him ask a question, and I, in answering the question, shall roar a veritable lion’s roar.”

Then those five hundred monks said to the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, “Whosoever, O venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, harbours doubt or mistrust, let him ask a question. And we shall honour you, and henceforth our obedience will be greater and better than before.” The venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa then instructed, roused, gladdened and thrilled the monks with a discourse on dharma. He then rose from his seat and departed.

The venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa had not been long gone when he kept his look turned all the time on the nun Sthūlanandā, turning his whole body round to do so as an elephant does,[90] hoping that he could reconcile her heart. Though in doing so he turned right round,[91] (56) the nun Sthūlanandā remained unreconciled. The depraved nun Sthūlanandā uncovered herself[92] before the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, and immediately she died. And as she had hardened[93] her heart against the venerable Mahā-Kāśyapa, she was reborn in one of the great hells. Such is the tradition.

Here ends the sūtra of the ordination of Mahā-Kāśyapa.

Notes on the ordination of Mahā-Kāśyapa:

With this account of the ordination of Mahā-Kāśyapa, cf. S. 2. 217 ff.

Footnotes and references:

1.

See vol. 1, p. 210, n. 3.

2.

Sārdhamvihārikā, “living with” Pali saddhivihārika, or—vihārin. The BSk. sārdhaṃ, cf. AvŚ. 2.139, seems to be a formation independent of the Pali saddhim, which in form = Vedic sadhrīṃ, ‘towards one aim’, but in meaning = Vedic sadhryak, ‘together’ (P.E.D.) Miss I. B. Homer calls the translator’s attention to the difference between an antevāsin, a pupil of an ācariya, and a saddhivihārika, or pupil of an upajjhāya, and refers to V. 1.46ff. for an account of the latter’s duties.

3.

Hināyāvarianti.

4.

Kāmehi, looks like a gloss, and does not appear in the corresponding passage at S. 2.2x7.

5.

Kāmehi, looks like a gloss, and does not appear in the corresponding passage at S. 2.2x7.

6.

Vītisārayati, for the usual BSk. vyatisārayati, Pali vītisāreti. See P.E.D. and B.H.S.D.

7.

Sammodanīyam kathāṃ sammodayitvā sārāyaṇīyām kathām. For sārāyaṇīya see vol. 1, p. 253, n.4. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) accepts Kern’s view, as quoted in P.E.D., that BSk. samrañjana (—janīya) is the true original form.

8.

Pradeśa, corresponding to Pali desa, e.g. D.1.51. The only example of this use of the word given by Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) is one from the Karmavibhaṅga, where Lévi translates it by “une question particulière.”

9.

Sacet (saced) BSk., Pali sace.

10.

Cf. V. 4. 344, where a nun who asked questions of a monk without asking for leave is adjudged guilty of a pācittiya offence. The translator owes this reference to Miss I. B. Horner.

11.

Evamukte. In the rest of this narrative this expression is either omitted in translation or rendered by “then”.

12.

I.e. at the houses of laymen. See V. 3.251 and 4.71ff. for rules about “eating in a group”, (gaṇabhojana) and I.B. Horner, Bk. of Disc. 3. p. 306, 311.

13.

S. 2.218 specifies them as three.

14.

Phāsuvihāra, Pali id. The P.E.D. leaves the etymology of phāsu doubtful, but refers to Trenckner’s suggestion that it is connected with Vedic praśu, “enjoying”, etc. The meaning is certain, as shown by the combination yathāsukhaṃ yathāphāsu at Mhvu. 3.169. The suggestion in P.E.D., following Pischel, that the synonymous phāsuka represents a Sk. *sparśuka (which would be a derivation from spṛś in same meaning as phassa “lovely”) is strengthened by the BSk. form sparśavihāratā at Mhvu. 1.323. But the latter form would seem to imply that the primary form is phāsu simply and not phāsuka as the P.E.D. (and Pischel) suggest. Edgerton (B.H.S.D.) remarks that none of the proposed etymologies is really convincing. Miss I. B. Horner, in a letter to the translator, suggests that there is here, as also in the injunction against eating in large groups, an allusion to the vexatious practice of the schismatic Devadatta and his friends who imposed on people’s charity.

15.

Literally “among families”, kuleṣu. The repetition has kulehi, instr. for loc.

16.

Sabrahmacāriṣu, in apposition to imāye parṣaye.

17.

For this division of monks see D. 1.78 and 5.2.220. V. 1.47,187,290; 2.16, 212, has only two divisions, navā or navakā and therā. As the present passage shows, the division was not necessarily one of age. The navas were monks of less than five years standing, those of middle status monks of between five and ten years’ standing, and theras those of above ten. I. B. Horner, Bk. of Disc., 4. p. i4i, n. 2; Cf. V. 1.103 (Bk. of Disc. 4. p. 133.)

18.

Jāgarikā, BSk., Pali jāgariyā.

19.

Śasyaghātaṃ. viya manye karonto. Cf. S. 2.218.

20.

Literally “this youngster does not know”, nāyaṃ kumārako... ājñāsi (an aor. form which according to Edgerton, Gram. §32,48 is a derivation from Sk. ājñasit rather than originally Prakrit.)

21.

Literally, “I am to be addressed with childish talk”, kuāravādena samudācritavya”.

22.

Na cāhaṃ kumārako... ājñāsīt, corresponding to nāyaṃ kumārako... ājñāsi on the previous page. Senart presumably regards aham here as the equivalent of ayam, though this particular example is not referred to in his note on the examples of this usage in the Mhvu. (vol. 1, p. 417). Edgerton, Gram., §21.80, remarks that “some of Senart’s cases for the alleged aham = ayam are unconvincing.”

23.

Pali Thullanandā. See D.P.N. S.2.215, 219 mentions two nuns who championed Ānanda against Kāśyapa. The first is called Thullatissā and the second Thullanandā, though both names are given as Fat Tissā in K.S. 2.146, 148. See the full index of references to Thullanandā in I. B. Horner, Bk. of Disc. 3, whence it would appear that this nun was persistently guilty of offences against the rules of the Order, and is even “shown in association with the schismatic monks headed by Devadatta.” (Ibid, p. xii.)

24.

Vaideha muni, Pali Vedeha muni, 5.2. 216 f., Mhvs. 3. 36, Ap. 7. In Pali, however, there was a popular etymology connecting vedeha with vedeti, “to know”, (see DA. 1. 139). Hence translation at KS. 2. 145, “the wise sage.” See also KS. 1. 321. For Videha see Vol. I, p. 239, n. 2.

25.

Dharmā. Possibly an allusion to the eight garudhammā “important rules,” for nuns, received by Ānanda from Gotama. See e.g. A. 4. 276; V. 2. 255, 4. 51.

26.

Literally “speaks,” followed by a repetition of her whole question.

27.

Mātṛgrāma.

28.

Akṣetrajña, “not knowing one’s field.” Cf. Pali akhettaññu, A. 3. 384; 4.418 (applied to a cow).

29.

Literally, “pointed out to another apart”, vyavadiśitum.

30.

Mahyam, gen. with pravrajitasya as genitive absolute.

31.

Literally, “the abode of defilements”, rajasāmāvāsa, where rajas could equally well be taken in its literal sense of “dust” or “dirt”. For the expression cf. D. 1.63, 250; S. 2.219; 5.250; DA. 1.180 (where rajas is given its figurative sense.)

32.

Literally, “is the open air”, abhyavakāśaṃ pravrajyā, Pali abbhokāso pabbajjā. See P.E.D. for references. Some, e.g. K.S. 2.148, render rather loosely, “free as air is life out of the world”. BSk. references in B.H.S.D.

33.

Reading śaṅkhalikhita for saṃlikhita. See vol. 2. p. 114, n. 3. According to B.H.S.D. this latter adj. or part, corresponding to the Pali subst. sallekha is not found in Sk. or Pali, though an AMg. equivalent form, saṃlihiya, is there given, but without an example of its usage. In this stereotyped formula an adjective denoting “perfection” or “brightness” seems more in place than one stressing the “austerity” of the brahma-life.

34.

Alūkha, see vol. 2, p. 63, n. 1.

35.

I.e. Kapilavastu. See vol. 1, p. 1, n.6.

36.

Pilotika, BSk., elsewhere pilotikā, as in Pali. MIndic. for plotika, see B.H.S.D.

37.

Literally, “towards”, uddiśya in prepositional usage, here with a gen. Pali uddissa has the acc.

38.

On the road from Rājagṛha to Nālandā. See D.P.N.

39.

Advaya.

40.

Sarvacetosamanvāgata, or, as KS. 2. 148, renders, “with his will thus fully made up.”

41.

See vol. 2, p.23, 429, 432.

42.

Abhijñāya.

43.

Sanidānam. Cf. M. 2. 9, where the Comy. (MA. 3. 241), explains the word by sappaccaya... sahetuka. ‘conditioned, having a cause.’

44.

Anidānam.

45.

Saprātihārya. For this sense of the word see D. Andersen and H. Smith)">C.P.D. where its converse appāṭihārya, is given as meaning ‘without argument’, or better, perhaps, ‘without reasoned argument.’ Cf. appāṭihīrakata, ‘witless’, unreliable’, at D. 1.193, 239.

46.

Aprātihārya.

47.

Ovāda, Pali; BSk., avavāda.

48.

Kiṃtu aham. The “direct speech” is further marked in some of the clauses by “ti”. Below, also, we have kinti aham.

49.

Prātimokṣa, Pali pātimokkha, a set of rules governing the external conduct of monks who assembled on the uposatha days to recite them. Later they seem to have done so on the 1st and 15th day only. These rules form the real subject-matter of the Suttavibhaṅga in the Vinaya-Piṭaka. For a discussion of the various theories as to the etymological meaning of the term pātimokkha, see I. B. Horner: Bk. of Disc., 1, pp. xxi f., where it is made plain that the usage shows a derivation either from pati-muñcati “to bind,” (P.E.D.) or from pati-muc, “to fasten or bind on (as armour)” (E. J. Thomas: History of Buddhist Thought, p. 15, n. 1). Both derivations yield the sense of “obligatory”. B.H.S.D. refers to the etymology in Winternitz, History of Indian Literature, 2.22.

50.

Ācāragocarasampanna, Pali ācāragocara, simply.

51.

Aṇumātreśvāvadyesu bhayadarśāvī.

52.

With the whole of this passage, cf. D. 1. 70; M. 1. 180, 268; Kvu. 424-6, 463-4; Miln. 367; Asl. 400. It does not, however, occur in the account of Kāśyapa’s ordination in S.

53.

Nidhyāpana BSk., Pali nijjhāpana.

54.

Nidhyāpana BSk., Pali nijjhāpana.

55.

Niḥ śaraṇaḥ prājña, which should be taken as a compound word, cf. Pali nissaraṇapañña (=n.—dassin.)

56.

Na nimittagrāhin, Pali nimittaggāhin, “not accepting a phenomenon”, i.e., by implication, not being enticed or entranced by outward appearances.

57.

Na anuvyañjanagrāhin, (Pali-ggāhin). On those two expressions see a note by T. W. Rhys Davies in Dial, 1, p.8o.

58.

Abhidhyā, Pali abhijjhā, more usually in Sk. abhidhyāna.

59.

Reading anvāsravensu: (from anu-ā-sru), to correspond with the Pali anvāssaveyam (v.l. anvasaveyyum) at D. 1. 70, instead of the text anuprāvensu: which Senart is forced to explain as a Prakrit form for anuprāpensu “take hold of”. It is now seen that Edgerton also (Gram. § 2. 30) takes the v as BSk. for p.

60.

Manasā dharmāṃ vijñāya.

61.

Reading manindriyeṇa for the strange bhavendriyeṇa of the text. No indriya or faculty of bhava “coming to be” is mentioned elsewhere, while the summing up at the end of the sentence has the usual expression for the sixth faculty, viz, manindriya.

62.

Sukhasahagata, “accompanied by ease.”

63.

Kāyagatā smṛti, Pali kāyagatā sati, one of the four smṛtyupasthānas (Pali satippaṭṭhāna) or “applications or a raising of mindfulness”, namely with regard to the body, feelings, mind and phenomena generally. See JP.E.D. and B.H.S.D. for Pali and BSk. references respectively.

64.

Satatasamitaṃ kāyaṃ na jahiṣyāmīti.

65.

Paryāpuṇiṣyam, cf. Pali pariyāpuṇāti, BSk. paryavāpnoti (Divy. 613). See B.H.S.D. for other BSk. examples.

66.

Cf. D. 3. 61; A. 3. 46; M. 1. 45; A. 2. 68.

67.

See vol. 2, p.441, n. 4.

68.

Apatrapya, elsewhere in BSk. apatrāpya, Pali ottappa. See vol. 1, p.87, n. 1 and vol. 2. p. 324, n. 8.

69.

Literally, “ready development”, bhāvanā pratyupasthitā. The latter word is BSk. corresponding to Pali paccupaṭṭhita.

70.

Literally, “in”, pañcasu upādānaskandhesu. I.e. the five skandhas (Pali khandhā, see vol. 1. p. 58, n. 3.) “or elements of sensory existence”, named in the next sentence, form the upādāna “that (material) substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going”, (P.E.D.), as fuel is the upādāna of fire. Here, by implication, the process is that of existence. The term is discussed at V. 1.10; S. 3. 47. 86-88, 127f.

71.

Pali saṅkhārā. See vol. 1, p. 99, n. 1.

72.

Sakaraṇiya, Pali id., “one who has still something to do (in order to attain perfection)” P.E.D. Cf. D. 2. 143; Thag. 1045; Miln. 138.

73.

Ārāgayati. See vol. 2. p. 259, n. 7. See also B.H.S.D.

74.

Ājñā, sc. of an arhan.

75.

Pṛṣṭhimena pṛṣṭhimam. See p. 3, n. 26.

76.

Pilotika.

77.

Prajñāpayet, opt. (1 sg.) in aor. sense.

78.

Khudayam. Khu is for khalu, the “d” being an adventitious “hiatus-bridger”, and Senart calls attention to the presence of this letter here and in the adjectives following, mṛdukādayam, etc.., as being a peculiar feature of the passage. See Edgerton, Gram., §4. 64.

79.

Masina.

80.

Sukhuma, BSk. and Pali, Sk. sūkṣma.

81.

Punar.

82.

Literally, “under-robe of hempen rags from the dust-heap”, śāṇānāṃ pāṃśukūlānāṃ saṅghāṭī. Pāṃśukūla, “rag from the dust-heap”, is a stock epithet of the monk’s robe. See V. 1. 58; M. 1. 78; S. 2. 202, 221; etc.

83.

Orasa mukhata jāta. Orasa = Sk. aurasa, “belonging to one’s own breast”. Cf. S. 2. 221.

84.

Orasa mukhata jāta. Orasa = Sk. aurasa, “belonging to one’s own breast”. Cf. S. 2. 221.

85.

Tisro vidyā. Most likely the three knowledges referred to here are the three vijjās often mentioned together in Pali texts (e.g. M. 1. 22.), namely, pubbe-nivās’-anussatiñāṇa, cut’-ūpapatti-ñāṇa, and āsavānaṃ-khaya-ñāṇa, that is, “knowledge of the memory of former lives, of passing away and coming to be, and of the decay of the āsavas.” These represented the last three stages in the achievement of the third and final sampadā, prājña-(paññā-) sampadā. See also D. 3. 220, 275; A. 2. 165; Vism. 202. They are set antithetically to the brāhmanic three knowledges, i.e., the three Vedas, at D. 1. 100, and A. 1.163. See P.E.D. for further references. Cf. vol. 1. p. 201, n. 1.

86.

Abhijñā. These are usually enumerated as five in the Mhvu. See vol. 1, p. 84, n. 3.

87.

See vol. 1, p. 43, n.2.

88.

Reading tālapatrikāye for balaśaktikāye of the text, to correspond with Pali tālapattikāye of the parallel passages at 5.2.217 and 222. The text reading forces Senart to give chāditavyam a sense other than its usual one, from chad, “to cover”, and to see in it “une orthographe prâcritisante” of the Pali chaddeti, “to vomit”, here “to throw”. But a much better sense is got here by retaining the primitive sense of chad and emending balaśaktikāye as above.

89.

See vol. 1, p. 223, n. 5.

90.

Literally, “looked with an elephant-look”, nāgāvalokitena avaloketi. Cf. M. 1. 137; Divy. 208.

91.

The text here is somewhat obscure. Senart prints śakaṭacakramātrā pṛthivī anuparivartte. But it would seem better from the point of view of syntax to read—mātrām prithivīm (acc.), with the MSS. This would give the literal translation “he went over ground the size of a cart-wheel,” i.e. he turned right round. In any case, we can not conceive here any allusion to the constellation Rohinī (śakata, see below p. 208, text) and the rotation of the earth.

92.

Āghāteti cittam. Cf. Pali.

93.

Cf. the account in V. 1.39ff.