by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words
The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....
1. Now at that time the Bhikkhus who were followers of Assaji and Punabbasu were dwelling on the Kiṭā Hill, wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless. Such as these were the evil practices they followed: they used to plant cuttings of flowers, and have them planted; they used to water flowers, and have them watered; they used to gather them, and have them gathered; they used to make them up into nosegays, and have them so made up; they used to make them up, and to have them made up, into wreaths, of the kind with the stalks together, and of the kind with the stalks separate, of the kind called mañjarikā, of the kind called vidhutikā, of the kind called vaṭaṃśaka, of the kind called āveḷa, of the kind called uracchada;—and they then used to take or send wreaths of each of these various kinds to the wives and daughters and young women and sisters-in-law and female slaves in respectable families;—and they used to eat out of one dish, to drink out of one vessel, to sit on one seat, to lie on one bed, one mat, one coverlet, with the wives and daughters and young women and sisters-in-law and female slaves in respectable families;—and they used to eat food at the wrong time, and to drink strong drink, and to make use of garlands, and scents, and unguents;—and they used to dance, and sing, and play music, and wanton, and all these together in every combination.
2. And they used to amuse themselves at games with eight pieces and ten pieces, and with tossing up, hopping over diagrams formed on the ground, and removing substances from a heap without shaking the remainder; and with games at dice, and trap-ball; and with sketching rude figures, tossing balls, blowing trumpets, having matches at ploughing with mimic ploughs, tumbling, forming mimic wind-mills, guessing at measures, having chariot races, and archery matches, shooting marbles with the fingers, guessing other people's thoughts, and mimicking other people's acts;—and they used to practise elephant riding, and horse riding, and carriage driving, and archery, and swordsmanship;—and they used to run to and fro in front of elephants, and in front of horses, and in front of carriages and they used to exhibit signs of anger, and to wring their hands, and to wrestle, and to box with their fists;—and spreading their robes out as a stage they used to invite dancing girls, saying, 'Here you may dance, sister!' and greet her with applause. Thus manifold were the evil lives which they practised.
3. Now at that time a certain Bhikkhu who had spent the rainy season in the country of Kāsi, and was on his way to visit the Blessed One, arrived at the Kiṭā Hill. And that Bhikkhu in the early morning put on his under garment, and went, duly bowled and robed, to the Kiṭā Hill for alms. And he was perfect in dignity, with his eyes cast down, and pleasing in appearance, whether in going in or in coming out, in looking or in watching, in bending in his arm or in stretching it forth.
Then the people on beholding that Bhikkhu, said, 'Who is this fellow like a fool of fools, or like an idiot of idiots, or like a simpleton of simpletons? Who would give an alms when this fellow comes near! Now our own masters, the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, are gentle, friendly, pleasant in speech, radiant with smiles, by no means fools, but open in countenance, and the first to speak. To such now it is fit to give an alms!'
And a certain lay-disciple saw that Bhikkhu as he was going along the Kiṭā Hill for alms. And on seeing him, he went up to the place where he was; and on coming there he said to that Bhikkhu:
'Has your reverence received an alms?'
'No, my friend, I have received no alms!'
'Come, your reverence! Let us go to my house!' 4. So the lay-disciple took the Bhikkhu to his house, and gave him to eat, and asked him: 'Whither then is your reverence going?'
'I am on my way to Sāvatthi, my friend, to visit the Blessed One.'
'Then let your reverence bow down at the feet of the Blessed One in my name, and say, "The residence on the Kiṭā Hill, Lord, has been spoiled. The Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are dwelling on the Kiṭā Hill, wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless. Such as these are the evil practices they follow (&c., as in §§ 1, 2, down to the end). And people, Lord, who were formerly believers and full of faith, are now become non-believers and void of faith; the opportunities of alms that were formerly open to the Saṃgha are now destroyed; worthy Bhikkhus forsake, and wicked Bhikkhus dwell in the place. Let, Lord, the Blessed One be pleased to send (other) Bhikkhus to the Kiṭā Hill in order that the residence there may be re-established."'
5. 'Very well, my friend,' said the Bhikkhu, in assent, to that lay-disciple. And rising from his seat, he set out for Sāvatthi, and went straight on to Anātha-piṇḍika's grove, to the Jetavana in Sāvatthi, to the place where the Blessed One was staying. And on arriving there he saluted the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side.
Now it is the custom for the Blessed Buddhas to exchange words of greeting with in-coming Bhikkhus. And the Blessed One said to that Bhikkhu, 'Do things go well with you, O Bhikkhu? Have you enough for your support? Have you accomplished your journey without too much fatigue? And whence, O Bhikkhu, have you come?'
'Things go well with me, Lord. I have enough for my support. And I have accomplished my journey without too much fatigue. I have spent the rainy season, Lord, in the land of Kāsi; and on my way to Sāvatthi to visit the Blessed One I arrived at the Kiṭā Hill. And after having dressed early in the morning, I went, Lord, duly bowled and robed, on to the Kiṭā Hill for alms. And a certain lay-disciple saw me (&c., as above, down to the end of § 4, with the alterations necessary to the narrative form of speech). Thence, Lord, am I come.'
6. Then the Blessed One on that occasion, and in that connection, convened a meeting of the Bhikkhu-Saṃgha, and asked the Bhikkhus:
'Is it true, O Bhikkhus, as they say, that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, and are dwelling on the Kiṭā Hill, are wicked Bhikkhus, and shameless; and that such are the evil practices they follow (&c., as in § 4, down to the end)?'
'It is true, Lord.'
The Blessed Buddha rebuked them, saying, 'How can they, O Bhikkhus, foolish persons that they are, follow such practices as these (&c., as in §§ 1, 2, down to the end)? This will not conduce, O Bhikkhus, to the conversion of the unconverted (&c., as usual. Compare chap. 1, § 2, down to the end).'
And when the Blessed Buddha had rebuked them, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the venerable Sāriputta and Moggallāna, and said, 'Go now, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, to the Kiṭā Hill. And on arriving there carry out the Pabbājaniya-kamma (Act of Banishment) against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, to the effect that they may become your Saddhi-vihārikas.'
'How, Lord, can we carry out the Pabbājaniyakamma against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu; for they are passionate men and violent?'
'Then do you go, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, together with a number of Bhikkhus.'
'So be it, Lord!' said Sāriputta and Moggallāna, in assent, to the Blessed One.
7. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu ought to be warned: when they have been warned, they ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pātimokkha against which they have offended); when they have been reminded they ought to be charged with the offence; when they have been charged some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Saṃgha, saying,
"Let the venerable Saṃgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their evil practices are both seen and heard, and also that respectable families have been led astray by them is seen, too, and heard. If the time is fit for the Saṃgha to do so, let the Saṃgha carry out the Pabbājaniyakamma against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, to the effect that the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kiṭā Hill'.
'"This is the motion (ñatti).
'"Let the venerable Saṃgha hear me. These Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are wicked Bhikkhus and shameless. Their evil practices (&c., as before, down to) is seen, too, and heard. The Saṃgha hereby carries out the Pabbājaniya-kamma against them, to the effect that the Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kiṭā Hill. Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Pabbājaniya-kamma against the followers (&c., as before) to the effect (&c., as before) let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.
'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Saṃgha (&c., as before). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Saṃgha (&c., as before).
'"The Pabbājaniya-kamma has been carried out by the Saṃgha against those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu to the effect that those Bhikkhus who are followers of Assaji and Punabbasu are not to dwell on the Kiṭā Hill'. The Saṃgha approves of it. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'
Footnotes and references:
The whole of this chapter recurs in the Sutta Vibhaṅga on the 13th Saṃghādisesa. The proceeding here laid down is really only a later method of acting under the circumstances similar to those for which that rule had previously been the authorised dealing.
The Samanta Pāsādikā says, Ekatovaṇṭikan ti pupphānaṃ vaṇṭe ekato katvā kata-mālaṃ. Ubhatovaṇṭikan ti ubhohi passehi puppha-vaṇṭe katvā kata-mālaṃ.
Perhaps 'like an anklet.' The Sam. Pās. says, Mañjarī viya katā puppha-vikati mañjarikā ti.
Perhaps 'like a fan.' The Sam. Pās. says, Vidhutikā ti sūciyā vā salākāya vā sinduvāra-pupphādīni vijjhitvā katā (mālā).
Perhaps 'like a crest.' The Sam. Pās. says, vaṭaṃsako ti avataṃsako. Compare the close of Rh. D.'s note on vegha for avegha, 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 37.
Perhaps 'like an earring.' The Sam. Pās. says, acelo (sic) ti kaṇṇikā. Compare Sanskrit āpīḍa, and Jātaka, vol. i, pp. 12, 95, 269.
The Sam. Pās. says, Uracchado ti hāra-sadisaṃ ure-ṭhapanaka-puppha dāmaṃ. 'Like mail-armour.'
All these games are forbidden seriatim in paragraph 4 of the Majjhima Sīla, and the whole list of offences recurs in the Suttavibhaṅga, Saṃghādisesa XIII, 1, 2. See Rh. D., 'Buddhist Suttas from the Pāli,' p. 193. We adhere to the translations there given and based on the Sumaṅgala Vilāsinī.
Usseḷhenti. We are quite uncertain how to render this word. One might be tempted to think that a denominative verb from ussoḷhi may have acquired a technical sense appropriate to this passage. But we do not favour any such conjectural alteration of the clear reading of the MSS., at all events at present.
Appoṭhenti. See Buddhaghosa's note quoted by Rh. D. in his note on the Book of the Great Decease, II, 19.
Nibbujjhanti, which Buddhaghosa explains by malla-yuddhaṃ karonti. Compare ubbujjhati at Cullavagga VIII, lo, and Sutra-vibhaṅga, Pārājika I, 10, 26.
The Sam. Pās. says, Nalāṭikaṃ pi denti sādhu sādhu bhaginīti attano nalāṭe aṅguliṃ ṭhapetvā tassā nalāṭe ṭhapenti.
Compare Mahā-parinibbāna Sutta II, 15.
The Sam. Pās. says, Saṃkuṭita-mukhatāya bhākuṭika-bhākuṭikā viya.
On this meaning of Sāriputta, see the note on Mahāvagga X, 4, 3.
That is, out of the particular place where they have caused the scandal, not of the Order. When they in anger left the Order, their conduct in doing so is blamed. See chap. 16, § 1.
See Mahāvagga I, 25, 6, and following, and Cullavagga VIII, 11, 12, and compare above 9, 1.
On this section compare chap. 1, § 4, chap. 9, § 2.
Buddhaghosa points out that whereas the Tajjaniya-kamma is directed against quarrelsomeness, and the nissaya-kamma against foolishness, it is scandal to the community against which the Pabbājaniya-kamma is directed.
The corresponding clause to the words 'to the effect,' &c., is wanting in chap. 1, § 4, but occurs in chap. 9, § 2.