Sanskrit quote nr. 21 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकरोः किमु नेत्रशोणिमानं किमकार्षीः करपल्लवावरोधम् ।
कलहं किमधाः क्रुधा रसज्ञे हितमर्थं न विदन्ति दैवदष्टाः ॥

akaroḥ kimu netraśoṇimānaṃ kimakārṣīḥ karapallavāvarodham |
kalahaṃ kimadhāḥ krudhā rasajñe hitamarthaṃ na vidanti daivadaṣṭāḥ ||

⏑⏑⎼¦⏑⏑⎼¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦⏑⎼⎼¦¦
⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⎼⏑⎼¦⏑⎼⎼¦¦⏑⏑⎼¦⏑⏑⎼¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦

Meter name: Aupacchandisika; Type: Akṣaracchanda (ardhasama); First and third pādas: 11 syllables; Second and fourth pādas: 12 syllables

Primary English translation:

“Did you in anger redden your eyes, and offer resistance with your tender hands or quarrel, O you, who can appreciate taste? Those who are smitten by adverse fate do not see their own welfare.”

(translation by A. A. Ramanathan)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Netra (नेत्र): defined in 4 categories.
Kim (किम्): defined in 3 categories.
Karapallava (करपल्लव): defined in 2 categories.
Kalaha (कलह): defined in 5 categories.
Rasajna (rasajña, रसज्ञ, rasajñā, रसज्ञा): defined in 3 categories.
Hita (हित): defined in 3 categories.
Artha (अर्थ): defined in 11 categories.
Na (न): defined in 5 categories.
Vidat (विदत्): defined in 1 categories.
Daiva (दैव): defined in 6 categories.
Dashta (dasta, daṣṭa, दष्ट, daṣṭā, दष्टा): defined in 3 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Purana, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Marathi, Pali, Dharmashastra (religious law), Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Vastushastra (architecture), Mimamsa (school of philosophy), Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akaroḥ kimu netraśoṇimānaṃ kimakārṣīḥ karapallavāvarodham”
  • akaroḥ -
  • kṛ (verb class 8); (1 der.)
    akaroḥ (imperfect active second single)
  • Cannot analyse kimu*ne
  • netra -
  • netra (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    netra (vocative single)
    netra (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    netra (vocative single)
  • śoṇimānam -
  • śoṇiman (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    śoṇimānam (accusative single)
  • kim -
  • kim (indeclinable interrogative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable interrogative)
    kim (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    kim (pronoun, neuter); (2 der.)
    kim (nominative single)
    kim (accusative single)
  • akārṣīḥ -
  • kṛ (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    akārṣīḥ (aorist active second single)
    kṛ (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    akārṣīḥ (aorist active second single)
    kṛ (verb class 5); (1 der.)
    akārṣīḥ (aorist active second single)
    kṛ (verb class 8); (1 der.)
    akārṣīḥ (aorist active second single)
  • karapallavāva -
  • karapallava (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    karapallavau (nominative dual)
    karapallavau (vocative dual)
    karapallavau (accusative dual)
  • arodham -
  • rudh (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    arodham (imperfect active first single)
  • Line 2: “kalahaṃ kimadhāḥ krudhā rasajñe hitamarthaṃ na vidanti daivadaṣṭāḥ”
  • kalaham -
  • kalaha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    kalaham (adverb)
    kalaham (accusative single)
    kalahā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    kalaham (adverb)
  • kim -
  • kim (indeclinable interrogative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable interrogative)
    kim (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    kim (pronoun, neuter); (2 der.)
    kim (nominative single)
    kim (accusative single)
  • adhāḥ -
  • dhā (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    adhāḥ (aorist active second single)
    dhā (verb class 2); (2 der.)
    adhāḥ (imperfect active second single)
    adhāḥ (aorist active second single)
    dhā (verb class 3); (1 der.)
    adhāḥ (aorist active second single)
    dhā (verb class 4); (1 der.)
    adhāḥ (aorist active second single)
  • krudhā* -
  • krudhā (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    krudhāḥ (nominative plural)
    krudhāḥ (vocative plural)
    krudhāḥ (accusative plural)
  • rasajñe -
  • rasajña (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    rasajñe (locative single)
    rasajña (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    rasajñe (nominative dual)
    rasajñe (vocative dual)
    rasajñe (accusative dual)
    rasajñe (locative single)
    rasajñā (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    rasajñe (nominative dual)
    rasajñe (vocative single)
    rasajñe (vocative dual)
    rasajñe (accusative dual)
  • hitam -
  • hita (noun, masculine); (4 der.)
    hitam (adverb)
    hitam (adverb)
    hitam (accusative single)
    hitam (accusative single)
    hita (noun, neuter); (6 der.)
    hitam (adverb)
    hitam (adverb)
    hitam (nominative single)
    hitam (accusative single)
    hitam (nominative single)
    hitam (accusative single)
    hitā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    hitam (adverb)
    hitam (adverb)
    hi -> hita (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    hitam (accusative single), from √hi (class 5 verb)
    hi -> hita (participle, neuter); (2 der.)
    hitam (nominative single), from √hi (class 5 verb)
    hitam (accusative single), from √hi (class 5 verb)
  • artham -
  • artha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    artham (adverb)
    artham (accusative single)
    artha (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    artham (adverb)
    artham (nominative single)
    artham (accusative single)
  • na -
  • na (indeclinable particle); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable particle)
    na (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    na (vocative single)
    na (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    na (vocative single)
  • vidanti -
  • vid -> vidat (participle, neuter); (3 der.)
    vidanti (nominative plural), from √vid (class 2 verb)
    vidanti (vocative plural), from √vid (class 2 verb)
    vidanti (accusative plural), from √vid (class 2 verb)
    vid (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    vidanti (present active third plural)
  • daiva -
  • daiva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    daiva (vocative single)
    daiva (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    daiva (vocative single)
  • daṣṭāḥ -
  • daṣṭa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    daṣṭāḥ (nominative plural)
    daṣṭāḥ (vocative plural)
    daṣṭā (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    daṣṭāḥ (nominative plural)
    daṣṭāḥ (vocative plural)
    daṣṭāḥ (accusative plural)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra 308.3: Literally, “Gems of Sanskrit poetry”. This work is a recent compilation of more than 10,000 Subhāṣitas, or ‘sanskrit aphorisms’. The book was compiled by Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya in 1952.
More info

Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra 160.5: Literally, “Treasury of Sanskrit Poetry”. A compendium of amusing, sarcastic and instructive verses. The book was compiled by Śivadatta Kaviratna in 1985.
More info

Padyaracanā 35.5: An anthology of Sanskrit poetry, containing a collection of poetical verses. The book was compiled by Lakṣmaṇa Bhaṭṭa Āṅkolakara in the 17th century.
More info

Authorship

Nārāyaṇa Rāma Ācārya (1900 A.D.) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitaratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Śivadatta Kaviratna is the compiler of the Subhāṣitasudhāratnabhāṇḍāgāra, into which he included this quote.

Lakṣmaṇa Bhaṭṭa Āṅkolakara is the compiler of the Padyaracanā, into which he included this quote.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 21 and can be found on page 4. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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