Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 3.14.380:

तत्त्वासङ्गविवक्षायां येषु भेदो निवर्तते ।
लुप्तोपमानि तान्याहुस्तद्धर्मेण समाश्रयात् ॥ ३८० ॥

tattvāsaṅgavivakṣāyāṃ yeṣu bhedo nivartate |
luptopamāni tānyāhustaddharmeṇa samāśrayāt || 380 ||

380. The cases where identification is intended and difference disappears are said to be those of hidden comparison, because of being covered by the common attribute.


[In sentences like gaur vāhikaḥ, siṃho māṇavakaḥ, two objects are identified, as it were. Their difference is obliterated. They are not presented as upamāna and upameya. In these sentences, a word is applied to an object other than its own. From this effect, its cause, namely, the presence of a common attribute is postulated. For this reason, Yāska and others consider these as examples where the comparison is hidden because of identi- fication. The comparison is hidden because the common attribute is hidden and not openly mentioned.]

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