Vakyapadiya of Bhartrihari

by K. A. Subramania Iyer | 1965 | 391,768 words

The English translation of the Vakyapadiya by Bhartrihari including commentary extracts and notes. The Vakyapadiya is an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with the philosophy of language. Bhartrhari authored this book in three parts and propounds his theory of Sphotavada (sphota-vada) which understands language as consisting of bursts of sounds conveyi...

This book contains Sanskrit text which you should never take for granted as transcription mistakes are always possible. Always confer with the final source and/or manuscript.

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of verse 2.102:

प्लुतस्याङ्गविवृद्धिं च समाहारमचोस्तथा ।
व्युदस्यता पुनर्भेदः शब्देष्वत्यन्तमाश्रितः ॥ १०२ ॥

plutasyāṅgavivṛddhiṃ ca samāhāramacostathā |
vyudasyatā punarbhedaḥ śabdeṣvatyantamāśritaḥ || 102 ||

102. By rejecting the prolongation of a particular portion (of a diphthong) in connection with protraction (pluti) and by rejecting the combination of two vowels, he (the vārttikakāra) has adopted difference.


All this has been said on the basis of abheda. It is now stated that Kātyāyana believes in bheda and not in abheda.

[Read verse 102 above]

[The sūtra: plutāv eca idutau (P. 8.2.106.) = when e, ai, o or au is to be protracted, it is their first element, namely, i or u that is protracted. Puṇyarāja apparently quotes the following: aṅgavivṛddhir nopapadyate, na hy aico'vayava akāra, ikāra, ukāro vā=This protraction of a part of the diphthongs in question, that is, e, ai, o, au, is not right because a, i, or u is not apart of e, ai, o, or au. This passage is not found in the vārttikas or the Mahābhāṣya.

While considering the sūtra: samāhāraḥ svaritaḥ (P. 1.2.31.) Kātyāyana says :—samāhāro'coścet, nābhāvāt=if it is said that it is the vowels which are combined, it is not right, for there is no such thing. Thus Kātyāyana rejects the idea that here there is a combination of vowels.]

Tantra is the accepted view. That is now explained.

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