Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

लक्ष्यस्य यथा,

lakṣyasya yathā,

This is an example of a suggestive indirect meaning:

sādhayanty anulavaṃ priyaṃ hariṃ mat-kṛte śramam avāpa yat sakhī |
tac cakāra caritaṃ hitaiṣiṇī bandhurāṅgi karaṇīyam uccakaiḥ ||

sādhayantī—she was achieving; anu-lavam—at every fraction of a second; priyam—the beloved; harimHari; mat-kṛte—for my sake; śramam—exertion; avāpa—got; yat—which; sakhī—the female friend; tat—that; cakāra—she did; caritam—a deed; hita-eṣiṇī—she seeks benefit; bandhura—is reclining; aṅgi—in such a way that the body (“it has limbs”); karaṇīyam—that which has to be done; uccakaiḥ—loudly.

She, who was achieving Hari as a beloved and was exerting herself for my sake, is my confidante who, desiring her benefit, did a deed that is loudly done when the body is reclining.

atra sva-sukha-tātparyān mat-kāntaṃ ramayantī tvaṃ śatrutvaṃ kṛtavatīti lakṣyo’rthaḥ kānte sāparādhatva-prakāśanaṃ vyañjayati.

Here, this indirect sense: “You, who are sensually enjoying my lover for your own pleasure, have become an enemy,” hints at the manifestation of an offensive state of mind in the male lover.

Commentary:

In this verse, the figurative usage is based on sarcasm, because mat-kṛte (for my sake) has the opposite sense (for your own pleasure). This is viparīta-lakṣaṇā (figurative usage in the form of the opposite meaning) (irony). The verse is second-rate poetry because the implied sense, “Hari disregarded the woman who is speaking,” is not too subtle (agūḍha) (5.2).

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