Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 10.88.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

गी॒र्णं भुव॑नं॒ तम॒साप॑गूळ्हमा॒विः स्व॑रभवज्जा॒ते अ॒ग्नौ । तस्य॑ दे॒वाः पृ॑थि॒वी द्यौरु॒तापोऽर॑णय॒न्नोष॑धीः स॒ख्ये अ॑स्य ॥
गीर्णं भुवनं तमसापगूळ्हमाविः स्वरभवज्जाते अग्नौ । तस्य देवाः पृथिवी द्यौरुतापोऽरणयन्नोषधीः सख्ये अस्य ॥
gīrṇam bhuvanaṃ tamasāpagūḻham āviḥ svar abhavaj jāte agnau | tasya devāḥ pṛthivī dyaur utāpo 'raṇayann oṣadhīḥ sakhye asya ||

English translation:

“The whole world swallowed up, hidden in darkness, was made manifest when Agni was born; thegods, heaven and earth, the waters and the plural nts rejoiced in his friendship.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): mūrdhanvānāṅgiraso vāmadevyo vā [mūrdhanvānāṅgirasa vāmadevya vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): sūryavaiśvānarau ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

गी॒र्णम् । भुव॑नम् । तम॑सा । अप॑ऽगूळ्हम् । आ॒विः । स्वः॑ । अ॒भ॒व॒त् । जा॒ते । अ॒ग्नौ । तस्य॑ । दे॒वाः । पृ॒थि॒वी । द्यौः । उ॒त । आपः॑ । अर॑णयन् । ओष॑धीः । स॒ख्ये । अ॒स्य॒ ॥
गीर्णम् । भुवनम् । तमसा । अपगूळ्हम् । आविः । स्वः । अभवत् । जाते । अग्नौ । तस्य । देवाः । पृथिवी । द्यौः । उत । आपः । अरणयन् । ओषधीः । सख्ये । अस्य ॥
gīrṇam | bhuvanam | tamasā | apa-gūḷham | āviḥ | svaḥ | abhavat | jāte | agnau | tasya | devāḥ | pṛthivī | dyauḥ | uta | āpaḥ | araṇayan | oṣadhīḥ | sakhye | asya

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.88.2 English analysis of grammar]

gīrṇam < gṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“devour; swallow; surround.”

bhuvanaṃ < bhuvanam < bhuvana

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“Earth; being; world; bhuvana [word].”

tamasāpagūḍham < tamasā < tamas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

tamasāpagūḍham < apagūḍham < apaguh < √guh

[verb noun], nominative, singular


āviḥ < āvis


“openly; obviously.”


[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“sun; sky; sunlight.”

abhavaj < abhavat < bhū

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

jāte < jan

[verb noun], locative, singular

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

agnau < agni

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

tasya < tad

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

devāḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”


[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”

dyaur < dyauḥ < div

[noun], nominative, singular

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

utāpo < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

utāpo < āpaḥ < ap

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”

'raṇayann < araṇayan < raṇay < √raṇ

[verb], plural, Imperfect


oṣadhīḥ < oṣadhī

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“herb; plant; drug; herb.”

sakhye < sakhya

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“friendship; aid; company.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

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