Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 8.41.10

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः श्वे॒ताँ अधि॑निर्णिजश्च॒क्रे कृ॒ष्णाँ अनु॑ व्र॒ता । स धाम॑ पू॒र्व्यं म॑मे॒ यः स्क॒म्भेन॒ वि रोद॑सी अ॒जो न द्यामधा॑रय॒न्नभ॑न्तामन्य॒के स॑मे ॥
यः श्वेताँ अधिनिर्णिजश्चक्रे कृष्णाँ अनु व्रता । स धाम पूर्व्यं ममे यः स्कम्भेन वि रोदसी अजो न द्यामधारयन्नभन्तामन्यके समे ॥
yaḥ śvetām̐ adhinirṇijaś cakre kṛṣṇām̐ anu vratā | sa dhāma pūrvyam mame yaḥ skambhena vi rodasī ajo na dyām adhārayan nabhantām anyake same ||

English translation:

“He who in his successive functions emits his bright rays or turns them dark, first made his residence (inthe firmament), and as the unborn sun the sky, supports with the pillar (of the firmament) both heaven and earth;may all our adversaries perish.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Emits his bright rays: as presiding over day and night


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): nābhākaḥ kāṇvaḥ [nābhāka kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛjjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः । श्वे॒तान् । अधि॑ऽनिर्निजः । च॒क्रे । कृ॒ष्णान् । अनु॑ । व्र॒ता । सः । धाम॑ । पू॒र्व्यम् । म॒मे॒ । यः । स्क॒म्भेन॑ । वि । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । अ॒जः । न । द्याम् । अधा॑रयत् । नभ॑न्ताम् । अ॒न्य॒के । स॒मे॒ ॥
यः । श्वेतान् । अधिनिर्निजः । चक्रे । कृष्णान् । अनु । व्रता । सः । धाम । पूर्व्यम् । ममे । यः । स्कम्भेन । वि । रोदसी इति । अजः । न । द्याम् । अधारयत् । नभन्ताम् । अन्यके । समे ॥
yaḥ | śvetān | adhi-nirnijaḥ | cakre | kṛṣṇān | anu | vratā | saḥ | dhāma | pūrvyam | mame | yaḥ | skambhena | vi | rodasī iti | ajaḥ | na | dyām | adhārayat | nabhantām | anyake | same

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.41.10 English analysis of grammar]

yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

śvetāṃ < śveta

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“white; bright; śveta [word]; bright.”

adhinirṇijaś < adhinirṇijaḥ < adhinirṇij

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

cakre < kṛ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

kṛṣṇāṃ < kṛṣṇa

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“black; dark; dark; blue; black.”



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

vratā < vrata

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

dhāma < dhāman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“domain; dwelling; law; appearance; light; race; agreement; color; location.”

pūrvyam < pūrvya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“first; precedent; age-old; excellent; former(a).”

mame <

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“weigh; measure; total; last; weigh; measure; give away; transform.”

ya < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

skambhena < skambha

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine




“apart; away; away.”


[noun], accusative, dual, feminine

“heaven and earth; Earth.”

ajo < ajaḥ < aja

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“not; like; no; na [word].”

dyām < div

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

adhārayan < adhārayat < dhāray < √dhṛ

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“keep; sustain; put; hold; wear; hold; carry; keep alive; suppress; preserve; remember; stow; stop; have; fill into; endure; support; understand; fixate; govern; restrain.”

nabhantām < nabh

[verb], plural, Present imperative


anyake < anyaka

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“other; another(a).”

same < sama

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“like; like; alike(p); level; symmetrical; balanced; average; same; regular; impartial; imperturbable; even; sama [word]; every(a); accurate; identical; fair; equal; synonymous; changeless; whole; exact; calm; straight; even; wide.”

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