Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 7.38.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उदु॒ ष्य दे॒वः स॑वि॒ता य॑याम हिर॒ण्ययी॑म॒मतिं॒ यामशि॑श्रेत् । नू॒नं भगो॒ हव्यो॒ मानु॑षेभि॒र्वि यो रत्ना॑ पुरू॒वसु॒र्दधा॑ति ॥
उदु ष्य देवः सविता ययाम हिरण्ययीममतिं यामशिश्रेत् । नूनं भगो हव्यो मानुषेभिर्वि यो रत्ना पुरूवसुर्दधाति ॥
ud u ṣya devaḥ savitā yayāma hiraṇyayīm amatiṃ yām aśiśret | nūnam bhago havyo mānuṣebhir vi yo ratnā purūvasur dadhāti ||

English translation:

“The divine Savitā has diffused the golden radiance on high, of which he is the asylum; verily Bhaga isto be absorbed by men who, abounding in wealth, distributes treasures (among them).”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vasiṣṭhaḥ [vasiṣṭha];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): savitā ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उत् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । स्यः । दे॒वः । स॒वि॒ता । य॒या॒म॒ । हि॒र॒ण्ययी॑म् । अ॒मति॑म् । याम् । अशि॑श्रेत् । नू॒नम् । भगः॑ । हव्यः॑ । मानु॑षेभिः । वि । यः । रत्ना॑ । पु॒रु॒ऽवसुः॑ । दधा॑ति ॥
उत् । ऊँ इति । स्यः । देवः । सविता । ययाम । हिरण्ययीम् । अमतिम् । याम् । अशिश्रेत् । नूनम् । भगः । हव्यः । मानुषेभिः । वि । यः । रत्ना । पुरुवसुः । दधाति ॥
ut | oṃ iti | syaḥ | devaḥ | savitā | yayāma | hiraṇyayīm | amatim | yām | aśiśret | nūnam | bhagaḥ | havyaḥ | mānuṣebhiḥ | vi | yaḥ | ratnā | puru-vasuḥ | dadhāti

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 7.38.1 English analysis of grammar]






“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

ṣya < sya < tya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

savitā < savitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Savitar; sun; Surya; Savitṛ.”

yayāma < yam

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“concentrate; grant; restrain; cause; control; offer; cover; raise.”

hiraṇyayīm < hiraṇyaya

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“gold; aureate; hiraṇyaya [word].”

amatiṃ < amatim < amati

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“effigy; ignorance; light; light; luster; form.”

yām < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

aśiśret < śri

[verb], singular, Plusquamperfect

“situate; dwell; go; lurk; reach; rear; repose; cling to.”



“now; surely; immediately; just.”

bhago < bhagaḥ < bhaga

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Bhaga; vulva; good fortune; vagina; bhaga [word]; sun; well-being; happiness; overlord.”

havyo < havyaḥ < hvā

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

mānuṣebhir < mānuṣebhiḥ < mānuṣa

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“man; man.”



“apart; away; away.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

ratnā < ratna

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“jewel; wealth; best; treasure; vajra; property; jewel; ruby; jewelry.”

purūvasur < purūvasuḥ < purūvasu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


dadhāti < dhā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

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