Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.31.5

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वृष्णे॒ यत्ते॒ वृष॑णो अ॒र्कमर्चा॒निन्द्र॒ ग्रावा॑णो॒ अदि॑तिः स॒जोषा॑: । अ॒न॒श्वासो॒ ये प॒वयो॑ऽर॒था इन्द्रे॑षिता अ॒भ्यव॑र्तन्त॒ दस्यू॑न् ॥
वृष्णे यत्ते वृषणो अर्कमर्चानिन्द्र ग्रावाणो अदितिः सजोषाः । अनश्वासो ये पवयोऽरथा इन्द्रेषिता अभ्यवर्तन्त दस्यून् ॥
vṛṣṇe yat te vṛṣaṇo arkam arcān indra grāvāṇo aditiḥ sajoṣāḥ | anaśvāso ye pavayo 'rathā indreṣitā abhy avartanta dasyūn ||

English translation:

“When the Maruts, the showerers (of benefits), glorify you, Indra, the showerer (of desires), with praises, and the exulting stones delight (to bruise the Soma), then, without horses, without chariots, they, the purifying (Maruts), dispatched by Indra, have overcome the Dasyus.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): amahīyuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वृष्णे॑ । यत् । ते॒ । वृष॑णः । अ॒र्कम् । अर्चा॑न् । इन्द्र॑ । ग्रावा॑णः । अदि॑तिः । स॒ऽजोषाः॑ । अ॒न॒श्वासः॑ । ये । प॒वयः॑ । अ॒र॒थाः । इन्द्र॑ऽइषिताः । अ॒भि । अव॑र्तन्त । दस्यू॑न् ॥
वृष्णे । यत् । ते । वृषणः । अर्कम् । अर्चान् । इन्द्र । ग्रावाणः । अदितिः । सजोषाः । अनश्वासः । ये । पवयः । अरथाः । इन्द्रइषिताः । अभि । अवर्तन्त । दस्यून् ॥
vṛṣṇe | yat | te | vṛṣaṇaḥ | arkam | arcān | indra | grāvāṇaḥ | aditiḥ | sa-joṣāḥ | anaśvāsaḥ | ye | pavayaḥ | arathāḥ | indra-iṣitāḥ | abhi | avartanta | dasyūn

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.31.5 English analysis of grammar]

vṛṣṇe < vṛṣan

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“bull; Indra; stallion; Vṛṣan; man.”



“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular


vṛṣaṇo < vṛṣaṇaḥ < vṛṣan

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“bull; Indra; stallion; Vṛṣan; man.”

arkam < arka

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sun; copper; Surya; hymn; twelve; fire; beam.”

arcān < arc

[verb], plural, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“sing; worship; honor; praise; welcome.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

grāvāṇo < grāvāṇaḥ < grāvan

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“stone; millstone; grindstone; mountain.”

aditiḥ < aditi

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“Aditi; aditi [word].”

sajoṣāḥ < sajoṣas

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“consentaneous; combined; associated; united.”

anaśvāso < an



anaśvāso < aśvāsaḥ < aśva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”

ye < yad

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

pavayo < pavayaḥ < pavi

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“vajra; tire; rim.”

'rathā < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

'rathā < rathāḥ < ratha

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

indreṣitā < indra

[noun], masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indreṣitā < iṣitāḥ < iṣay < √iṣ

[verb noun], nominative, plural

abhy < abhī < abhi


“towards; on.”

avartanta < vṛt

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“behave; happen; exist; return; dwell; die; roll; continue; act; exist; feed on; issue; move; travel; proceed; turn; situate; drive; account for; begin; do; inhere; revolve.”

dasyūn < dasyu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“savage; outcast; mugger.”

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