Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.31.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अन॑वस्ते॒ रथ॒मश्वा॑य तक्ष॒न्त्वष्टा॒ वज्रं॑ पुरुहूत द्यु॒मन्त॑म् । ब्र॒ह्माण॒ इन्द्रं॑ म॒हय॑न्तो अ॒र्कैरव॑र्धय॒न्नह॑ये॒ हन्त॒वा उ॑ ॥
अनवस्ते रथमश्वाय तक्षन्त्वष्टा वज्रं पुरुहूत द्युमन्तम् । ब्रह्माण इन्द्रं महयन्तो अर्कैरवर्धयन्नहये हन्तवा उ ॥
anavas te ratham aśvāya takṣan tvaṣṭā vajram puruhūta dyumantam | brahmāṇa indram mahayanto arkair avardhayann ahaye hantavā u ||

English translation:

“The Ṛbhus have fabricated your car, Indra, the invoked of many, adapted to its horses; Tvaṣṭā (had made) your radiant thunderbolt; the venerable (Aṅgirasas), praising Indra with hymns, have given him vigour for the destruction of Ahi.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The Ṛbhus: anavaḥ is the text, explained manuṣyaḥ and applied to ṛbhavaḥ; the venerable aṅgirasas: brāhmaṇāḥ, brāhmaṇas is the text, explained as aṅgirasaḥ

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): amahīyuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अन॑वः । ते॒ । रथ॑म् । अश्वा॑य । त॒क्ष॒न् । त्वष्टा॑ । वज्र॑म् । पु॒रु॒ऽहू॒त॒ । द्यु॒ऽमन्त॑म् । ब्र॒ह्माणः॑ । इन्द्र॑म् । म॒हय॑न्तः । अ॒र्कैः । अव॑र्धयन् । अह॑ये । हन्त॒वै । ऊँ॒ इति॑ ॥
अनवः । ते । रथम् । अश्वाय । तक्षन् । त्वष्टा । वज्रम् । पुरुहूत । द्युमन्तम् । ब्रह्माणः । इन्द्रम् । महयन्तः । अर्कैः । अवर्धयन् । अहये । हन्तवै । ऊँ इति ॥
anavaḥ | te | ratham | aśvāya | takṣan | tvaṣṭā | vajram | puru-hūta | dyu-mantam | brahmāṇaḥ | indram | mahayantaḥ | arkaiḥ | avardhayan | ahaye | hantavai | oṃ iti

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.31.4 English analysis of grammar]

anavas < anavaḥ < anu

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“anu; Anu.”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular

“you.”

ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

aśvāya < aśva

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”

takṣan < takṣ

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

“produce; shape; fashion; chisel; invent.”

tvaṣṭā < tvaṣṭṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Tvaṣṭṛ; Viśvakarman; sun.”

vajram < vajra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“vajra; Vajra; vajra; vajra; lightning; abhra; vajramūṣā; diamond; vajra [word]; vajrakapāṭa; vajra; vaikrānta.”

puruhūta

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; Vishnu.”

dyumantam < dyumat

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“bright; brilliant; brilliant; loud.”

brahmāṇa < brahmāṇaḥ < brahman

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Brahma; Brahmin; dhak; Brahman; brahman [word]; Brahman; Brahmin; Brahmapurāṇa; Vishnu; Brihaspati.”

indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

mahayanto < mahayantaḥ < mahay < √mah

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“glorify.”

arkair < arkaiḥ < arka

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sun; copper; Surya; hymn; twelve; fire; beam.”

avardhayann < avardhayan < vardhay < √vṛdh

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“increase; strengthen; promote; rear; add; greet; laud.”

ahaye < ahi

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“snake; lead; nāga; Nāga; ahi [word]; Vṛtra.”

hantavā < hantavai < han

[verb noun]

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

u

[adverb]

“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

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