Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.38.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त स्मा॑स्य तन्य॒तोरि॑व॒ द्योॠ॑घाय॒तो अ॑भि॒युजो॑ भयन्ते । य॒दा स॒हस्र॑म॒भि षी॒मयो॑धीद्दु॒र्वर्तु॑: स्मा भवति भी॒म ऋ॒ञ्जन् ॥
उत स्मास्य तन्यतोरिव द्योॠघायतो अभियुजो भयन्ते । यदा सहस्रमभि षीमयोधीद्दुर्वर्तुः स्मा भवति भीम ऋञ्जन् ॥
uta smāsya tanyator iva dyor ṛghāyato abhiyujo bhayante | yadā sahasram abhi ṣīm ayodhīd durvartuḥ smā bhavati bhīma ṛñjan ||

English translation:

“And the adversaries of that foe-destroying steed, like (those) of the brilliant thunderbolt, are alarmed; for when he contends, even against thousands on every side, then, rousing (his spirit), he is fearful and irresistible.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dadhrikāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त । स्म॒ । अ॒स्य॒ । त॒न्य॒तोःऽइ॑व । द्योः । ऋ॒घा॒य॒तः । अ॒भि॒ऽयुजः॑ । भ॒य॒न्ते॒ । य॒दा । स॒हस्र॑म् । अ॒भि । सी॒म् । अयो॑धीत् । दुः॒ऽवर्तुः॑ । स्म॒ । भ॒व॒ति॒ । भी॒मः । ऋ॒ञ्जन् ॥
उत । स्म । अस्य । तन्यतोःइव । द्योः । ऋघायतः । अभियुजः । भयन्ते । यदा । सहस्रम् । अभि । सीम् । अयोधीत् । दुःवर्तुः । स्म । भवति । भीमः । ऋञ्जन् ॥
uta | sma | asya | tanyatoḥ-iva | dyoḥ | ṛghāyataḥ | abhi-yujaḥ | bhayante | yadā | sahasram | abhi | sīm | ayodhīt | duḥ-vartuḥ | sma | bhavati | bhīmaḥ | ṛñjan

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.38.8 English analysis of grammar]



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

smāsya < sma


smāsya < asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

tanyator < tanyatoḥ < tanyatu

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine




“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

dyor < dyoḥ < div

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

ṛghāyato < ṛghāyataḥ < ṛghāy

[verb noun], genitive, singular

abhiyujo < abhiyujaḥ < abhiyuj

[noun], ablative, singular, feminine

“attack; attack.”

bhayante < bhī

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“fear; fear.”



“once [when]; if.”

sahasram < sahasra

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“thousand; one-thousandth; sahasra [word].”



“towards; on.”

ṣīm < sīm


ayodhīd < ayodhīt < yudh

[verb], singular, Athematic is aor. (Ind.)

“fight; overcome.”

durvartuḥ < durvartu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

smā < sma


bhavati < bhū

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

bhīma < bhīmaḥ < bhīma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“awful; amazing; terrific; enormous; bhīma [word]; fearful.”

ṛñjan < ṛj

[verb noun], nominative, singular

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