Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.38.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त स्मा॑स्य पनयन्ति॒ जना॑ जू॒तिं कृ॑ष्टि॒प्रो अ॒भिभू॑तिमा॒शोः । उ॒तैन॑माहुः समि॒थे वि॒यन्त॒: परा॑ दधि॒क्रा अ॑सरत्स॒हस्रै॑: ॥
उत स्मास्य पनयन्ति जना जूतिं कृष्टिप्रो अभिभूतिमाशोः । उतैनमाहुः समिथे वियन्तः परा दधिक्रा असरत्सहस्रैः ॥
uta smāsya panayanti janā jūtiṃ kṛṣṭipro abhibhūtim āśoḥ | utainam āhuḥ samithe viyantaḥ parā dadhikrā asarat sahasraiḥ ||

English translation:

“Men praise the overpowering rapidty of that fleet (steed), who is the accomplisher (of the desires) of mankind, and following him to battle, they have said, Dadhikrā with (his) thousands has gone forth against the foe.”

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dadhrikāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त । स्म॒ । अ॒स्य॒ । प॒न॒य॒न्ति॒ । जनाः॑ । जू॒तिम् । कृ॒ष्टि॒ऽप्रः । अ॒भिऽभू॑तिम् । आ॒शोः । उ॒त । ए॒न॒म् । आ॒हुः॒ । स॒म्ऽइ॒थे । वि॒ऽयन्तः॑ । परा॑ । द॒धि॒ऽक्राः । अ॒स॒र॒त् । स॒हस्रैः॑ ॥
उत । स्म । अस्य । पनयन्ति । जनाः । जूतिम् । कृष्टिप्रः । अभिभूतिम् । आशोः । उत । एनम् । आहुः । सम्इथे । वियन्तः । परा । दधिक्राः । असरत् । सहस्रैः ॥
uta | sma | asya | panayanti | janāḥ | jūtim | kṛṣṭi-praḥ | abhi-bhūtim | āśoḥ | uta | enam | āhuḥ | sam-ithe | vi-yantaḥ | parā | dadhi-krāḥ | asarat | sahasraiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.38.9 English analysis of grammar]

uta

[adverb]

“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

smāsya < sma

[adverb]

smāsya < asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

panayanti < panay < √pan

[verb], plural, Present indikative

janā < janāḥ < jana

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“people; national; man; relative; jan; Janaloka; person; jana [word]; man; attendant; Jana; foreigner; inhabitant; group.”

jūtiṃ < jūtim < jūti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“jūti [word].”

kṛṣṭipro < kṛṣṭi

[noun], feminine

“people; citizenry.”

kṛṣṭipro < praḥ < prā

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“appreciated.”

abhibhūtim < abhibhūti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

āśoḥ < āśu

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“quick; fast; immediate; agile.”

utainam < uta

[adverb]

“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

utainam < enam < enad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.).”

āhuḥ < ah

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“describe; state; say; enumerate; call; name; teach; tell; deem; explain; say; define.”

samithe < samitha

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“battle; conflict.”

viyantaḥ < < √i

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“disappear; differ; elapse.”

parā

[adverb]

“away.”

dadhikrā < dadhikrāḥ < dadhikrā

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Dadhikrā.”

asarat < sṛ

[verb], singular, Thematic aorist (Ind.)

“sṛ; liquefy; run; spread; stretch out.”

sahasraiḥ < sahasra

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“thousand; one-thousandth; sahasra [word].”

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