Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.38.5

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त स्मै॑नं वस्त्र॒मथिं॒ न ता॒युमनु॑ क्रोशन्ति क्षि॒तयो॒ भरे॑षु । नी॒चाय॑मानं॒ जसु॑रिं॒ न श्ये॒नं श्रव॒श्चाच्छा॑ पशु॒मच्च॑ यू॒थम् ॥
उत स्मैनं वस्त्रमथिं न तायुमनु क्रोशन्ति क्षितयो भरेषु । नीचायमानं जसुरिं न श्येनं श्रवश्चाच्छा पशुमच्च यूथम् ॥
uta smainaṃ vastramathiṃ na tāyum anu krośanti kṣitayo bhareṣu | nīcāyamānaṃ jasuriṃ na śyenaṃ śravaś cācchā paśumac ca yūtham ||

English translation:

“Whom men call after in battles, as after a thief carrying off a garment, or as (after) a hungry hawk pouncing (upon his prey); they call after him, hastening to obtain food, or a herd of cattle.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

They call after him: śravascācchā paśumacca yūtham = annam kīrttim vā paśumad yūtham ca acchā abhilakṣya gacchantam enam anukrośanti, they call after him, that is Dadhikrā, going, having in view either food or fame, or a herd consisting of cattle


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dadhrikāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त । स्म॒ । ए॒न॒म् । व॒स्त्र॒ऽमथि॑म् । न । ता॒युम् । अनु॑ । क्रो॒श॒न्ति॒ । क्षि॒तयः॑ । भरे॑षु । नी॒चा । अय॑मानम् । जसु॑रिम् । न । श्ये॒नम् । श्रवः॑ । च॒ । अच्छ॑ । प॒शु॒ऽमत् । च॒ । यू॒थम् ॥
उत । स्म । एनम् । वस्त्रमथिम् । न । तायुम् । अनु । क्रोशन्ति । क्षितयः । भरेषु । नीचा । अयमानम् । जसुरिम् । न । श्येनम् । श्रवः । च । अच्छ । पशुमत् । च । यूथम् ॥
uta | sma | enam | vastra-mathim | na | tāyum | anu | krośanti | kṣitayaḥ | bhareṣu | nīcā | ayamānam | jasurim | na | śyenam | śravaḥ | ca | accha | paśu-mat | ca | yūtham

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.38.5 English analysis of grammar]



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

smainaṃ < smā < sma


smainaṃ < enam < enad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.).”

vastramathiṃ < vastramathim < vastramathi

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine



“not; like; no; na [word].”

tāyum < tāyu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine




“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

krośanti < kruś

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“cry; shout; lament.”

kṣitayo < kṣitayaḥ < kṣiti

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī; people; dwelling; battlefield; Earth; estate; colony; house.”

bhareṣu < bhara

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“battle; weight; foray; bhṛ; load.”

nīcāyamānaṃ < _ < √_



jasuriṃ < jasurim < jasuri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine




“not; like; no; na [word].”

śyenaṃ < śyenam < śyena

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“hawk; bird of prey; falcon; Śyena; eagle; śyena [word]; Śyena.”

śravaś < śravaḥ < śravas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“fame; glory; ear.”

cācchā < ca


“and; besides; then; now; even.”

cācchā < acchā


“towards; accha [prefix].”

paśumac < paśumat

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“rich in cattle.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

yūtham < yūtha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“herd; troop; battalion.”

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