Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.38.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः स्मा॑रुन्धा॒नो गध्या॑ स॒मत्सु॒ सनु॑तर॒श्चर॑ति॒ गोषु॒ गच्छ॑न् । आ॒विॠ॑जीको वि॒दथा॑ नि॒चिक्य॑त्ति॒रो अ॑र॒तिं पर्याप॑ आ॒योः ॥
यः स्मारुन्धानो गध्या समत्सु सनुतरश्चरति गोषु गच्छन् । आविॠजीको विदथा निचिक्यत्तिरो अरतिं पर्याप आयोः ॥
yaḥ smārundhāno gadhyā samatsu sanutaraś carati goṣu gacchan | āvirṛjīko vidathā nicikyat tiro aratim pary āpa āyoḥ ||

English translation:

“Who, opposing the mingled multitude in battles, rushes eager, passing through the regions, whose vigour is manifestl, who, understanding what is to be known, puts to shame the adversary of the (pious) man.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Vidhatā nicikyat tiro aratim paryāpa āyoḥ = jñātavyāni janam aramanām arim vā tiraskaroti stoturmanuṣyasya, knowing things cognizable, who disgraces the opponent, or the foe of the man, the praiser


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dadhrikāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः । स्म॒ । आ॒ऽरु॒न्धा॒नः । गध्या॑ । स॒मत्ऽसु॑ । सनु॑ऽतरः । चर॑ति । गोषु॑ । गच्छ॑न् । आ॒विःऽऋ॑जीकः । वि॒दथा॑ । नि॒ऽचिक्य॑त् । ति॒रः । अ॒र॒तिम् । परि॑ । आपः॑ । आ॒योः ॥
यः । स्म । आरुन्धानः । गध्या । समत्सु । सनुतरः । चरति । गोषु । गच्छन् । आविःऋजीकः । विदथा । निचिक्यत् । तिरः । अरतिम् । परि । आपः । आयोः ॥
yaḥ | sma | ārundhānaḥ | gadhyā | samat-su | sanu-taraḥ | carati | goṣu | gacchan | āviḥ-ṛjīkaḥ | vidathā | ni-cikyat | tiraḥ | aratim | pari | āpaḥ | āyoḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.38.4 English analysis of grammar]

yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

smārundhāno < sma


smārundhāno < ārundhānaḥ < ārudh < √rudh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“obstruct; close.”

gadhyā < gadhya

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

samatsu < samad

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“conflict; strife.”

sanutaraś < sanutaraḥ < sanutara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

carati < car

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“car; wander; perform; travel; bore; produce; make; dwell; dig; act; observe; enter (a state); observe; cause; crop; behave; practice; heed; process; administer.”

goṣu < go

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

gacchan < gam

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“go; situate; enter (a state); travel; disappear; [in]; elapse; leave; reach; vanish; love; walk; approach; issue; hop on; gasify; get; come; die; drain; spread; transform; happen; discharge; ride; to be located; run; detect; refer; go; shall; drive.”

āvirṛjīko < āvirṛjīkaḥ < āvirṛjīka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

vidathā < vidatha

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“meeting; wisdom; council.”

nicikyat < nici < √ci

[verb noun], nominative, singular


tiro < tiras


“tiras [word]; away; secretly.”

aratim < arati

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


pary < pari


“from; about; around.”

āpa < āpe < āp

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“enter (a state); get; reach; obtain; equal.”

āyoḥ < āyu

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

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