Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.18.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

किमु॑ ष्विदस्मै नि॒विदो॑ भन॒न्तेन्द्र॑स्याव॒द्यं दि॑धिषन्त॒ आप॑: । ममै॒तान्पु॒त्रो म॑ह॒ता व॒धेन॑ वृ॒त्रं ज॑घ॒न्वाँ अ॑सृज॒द्वि सिन्धू॑न् ॥
किमु ष्विदस्मै निविदो भनन्तेन्द्रस्यावद्यं दिधिषन्त आपः । ममैतान्पुत्रो महता वधेन वृत्रं जघन्वाँ असृजद्वि सिन्धून् ॥
kim u ṣvid asmai nivido bhanantendrasyāvadyaṃ didhiṣanta āpaḥ | mamaitān putro mahatā vadhena vṛtraṃ jaghanvām̐ asṛjad vi sindhūn ||

English translation:

“What do the sacred expiatory strains declare to me? the waters reeive the reproach of Indra; my son has slain Vṛtra with the mighty thunderbolt; he has set those rivers free.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

What do the sacred strains declare: kinuṣvid asmai nivido manante: the nivids are certain verses repeated at some sacrifices to Indra and the Maruts in their honour, and are tantamount to an acquittal of the charge imputed to Indra, and here anticipated by Aditi of brhmanicide, Vṛtra being a brahman; the crime was transferred to the waters in the shape of foam


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indrāditī ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

किम् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । स्वि॒त् । अ॒स्मै॒ । नि॒ऽविदः॑ । भ॒न॒न्त॒ । इन्द्र॑स्य । अ॒व॒द्यम् । दि॒धि॒ष॒न्ते॒ । आपः॑ । मम॑ । ए॒तान् । पु॒त्रः । म॒ह॒ता । व॒धेन॑ । वृ॒त्रम् । ज॒घ॒न्वान् । अ॒सृ॒ज॒त् । वि । सिन्धू॑न् ॥
किम् । ऊँ इति । स्वित् । अस्मै । निविदः । भनन्त । इन्द्रस्य । अवद्यम् । दिधिषन्ते । आपः । मम । एतान् । पुत्रः । महता । वधेन । वृत्रम् । जघन्वान् । असृजत् । वि । सिन्धून् ॥
kim | oṃ iti | svit | asmai | ni-vidaḥ | bhananta | indrasya | avadyam | didhiṣante | āpaḥ | mama | etān | putraḥ | mahatā | vadhena | vṛtram | jaghanvān | asṛjat | vi | sindhūn

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.18.7 English analysis of grammar]

kim < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

ṣvid < svid


“svid [word].”

asmai < idam

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

nivido < nividaḥ < nivid

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

bhanantendrasyāvadyaṃ < bhananta < bhan

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

bhanantendrasyāvadyaṃ < indrasya < indra

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

bhanantendrasyāvadyaṃ < avadyam < avadya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“shame; censure; blame.”

didhiṣanta < didhiṣante < didhiṣ < √dhā

[verb], plural, Present indikative

āpaḥ < ap

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”

mamaitān < mama < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”

mamaitān < etān < etad

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); etad [word].”

putro < putraḥ < putra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“son; putra [word]; male child; Putra; Bodhisattva.”

mahatā < mahat

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”

vadhena < vadha

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“killing; weapon; māraṇa; execution; destruction; vadh-; Vadha; dysfunction; punishment; kick.”

vṛtraṃ < vṛtram < vṛtra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Vṛtra; vṛtra [word].”

jaghanvāṃ < han

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

asṛjad < asṛjat < sṛj

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“create; shoot; discharge; free; cause; throw; emit; send; produce; use; be born; make.”



“apart; away; away.”

sindhūn < sindhu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

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