Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.4.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तव॑ भ्र॒मास॑ आशु॒या प॑त॒न्त्यनु॑ स्पृश धृष॒ता शोशु॑चानः । तपूं॑ष्यग्ने जु॒ह्वा॑ पतं॒गानसं॑दितो॒ वि सृ॑ज॒ विष्व॑गु॒ल्काः ॥
तव भ्रमास आशुया पतन्त्यनु स्पृश धृषता शोशुचानः । तपूंष्यग्ने जुह्वा पतंगानसंदितो वि सृज विष्वगुल्काः ॥
tava bhramāsa āśuyā patanty anu spṛśa dhṛṣatā śośucānaḥ | tapūṃṣy agne juhvā pataṃgān asaṃdito vi sṛja viṣvag ulkāḥ ||

English translation:

“Your swift and errant flames descend (on everyside); fierce-shining with vigour consume (the foe); scatter, Agni, with the ladle (of oblation), scorching flames and sparks, and brands.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): rakṣohā'gniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhurikpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

तव॑ । भ्र॒मासः॑ । आ॒शु॒ऽया । प॒त॒न्ति॒ । अनु॑ । स्पृ॒श॒ । धृ॒ष॒ता । शोशु॑चानः । तपूं॑षि । अ॒ग्ने॒ । जु॒ह्वा॑ । प॒त॒ङ्गान् । अस॑म्ऽदितः । वि । सृ॒ज॒ । विष्व॑क् । उ॒ल्काः ॥
तव । भ्रमासः । आशुया । पतन्ति । अनु । स्पृश । धृषता । शोशुचानः । तपूंषि । अग्ने । जुह्वा । पतङ्गान् । असम्दितः । वि । सृज । विष्वक् । उल्काः ॥
tava | bhramāsaḥ | āśu-yā | patanti | anu | spṛśa | dhṛṣatā | śośucānaḥ | tapāūṃṣi | agne | juhvā | pataṅgān | asam-ditaḥ | vi | sṛja | viṣvak | ulkāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.4.2 English analysis of grammar]

tava < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


bhramāsa < bhramāsaḥ < bhrama

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“bhrama; dizziness; flare; wandering.”



patanty < patanti < pat

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“fall down; drop; fly; issue; fall; fall; decay; hang down; banish; throw; lodge; disappear.”



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

spṛśa < spṛś

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“touch; enter (a state); reach; touch.”

dhṛṣatā < dhṛṣat

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

śośucānaḥ < śośuc < √śuc

[verb noun], nominative, singular


tapūṃṣy < tapūṃṣi < tapus

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter


agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

juhvā < juhū

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“tongue; fire; ladle.”

pataṅgān < pataṃga

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“insect; sun; bird; Caesalpinia sappan L.; Pataṃga; Vishnu.”

asaṃdito < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

asaṃdito < saṃditaḥ < saṃdo < √do

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“yoke; tie.”



“apart; away; away.”

sṛja < sṛj

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“create; shoot; discharge; free; cause; throw; emit; send; produce; use; be born; make.”

viṣvag < viṣvak < viṣvañc

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“dispersed; viṣvañc [word].”

ulkāḥ < ulkā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“meteor; torch; brand.”

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