Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.12.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यस्मा॒न्न ऋ॒ते वि॒जय॑न्ते॒ जना॑सो॒ यं युध्य॑माना॒ अव॑से॒ हव॑न्ते । यो विश्व॑स्य प्रति॒मानं॑ ब॒भूव॒ यो अ॑च्युत॒च्युत्स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥
यस्मान्न ऋते विजयन्ते जनासो यं युध्यमाना अवसे हवन्ते । यो विश्वस्य प्रतिमानं बभूव यो अच्युतच्युत्स जनास इन्द्रः ॥
yasmān na ṛte vijayante janāso yaṃ yudhyamānā avase havante | yo viśvasya pratimānam babhūva yo acyutacyut sa janāsa indraḥ ||

English translation:

“Without whom men do not conquer; whom, when engaged in conflict, they invoke for succour; he, who is the prototype of the universe and the caster down of the unyielding; he, men, is Indra.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यस्मा॑त् । न । ऋ॒ते । वि॒ऽजय॑न्ते । जना॑सः । यम् । युध्य॑मानाः । अव॑से । हव॑न्ते । यः । विश्व॑स्य । प्र॒ति॒ऽमान॑म् । ब॒भूव॑ । यः । अ॒च्यु॒त॒ऽच्युत् । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥
यस्मात् । न । ऋते । विजयन्ते । जनासः । यम् । युध्यमानाः । अवसे । हवन्ते । यः । विश्वस्य । प्रतिमानम् । बभूव । यः । अच्युतच्युत् । सः । जनासः । इन्द्रः ॥
yasmāt | na | ṛte | vi-jayante | janāsaḥ | yam | yudhyamānāḥ | avase | havante | yaḥ | viśvasya | prati-mānam | babhūva | yaḥ | acyuta-cyut | saḥ | janāsaḥ | indraḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.12.9 English analysis of grammar]

yasmān < yasmāt < yad

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”



“not; like; no; na [word].”



“without; ṛte [word].”

vijayante < viji < √ji

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“overcome; win; control; cure; overpower; mortify.”

janāso < janāsaḥ < jana

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“people; national; man; relative; jan; Janaloka; person; jana [word]; man; attendant; Jana; foreigner; inhabitant; group.”

yaṃ < yam < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

yudhyamānā < yudhyamānāḥ < yudh

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“fight; overcome.”

avase < av

[verb noun]

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

havante < hvā

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

viśvasya < viśva

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

pratimānam < pratimāna

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter


babhūva < bhū

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

acyutacyut < acyuta


“firm; regular; permanent; immovable; unchanging.”

acyutacyut < cyut

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“shaking; dropping.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

janāsa < janāsaḥ < jana

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“people; national; man; relative; jan; Janaloka; person; jana [word]; man; attendant; Jana; foreigner; inhabitant; group.”

indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

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