Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.12.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यं क्रन्द॑सी संय॒ती वि॒ह्वये॑ते॒ परेऽव॑र उ॒भया॑ अ॒मित्रा॑: । स॒मा॒नं चि॒द्रथ॑मातस्थि॒वांसा॒ नाना॑ हवेते॒ स ज॑नास॒ इन्द्र॑: ॥
यं क्रन्दसी संयती विह्वयेते परेऽवर उभया अमित्राः । समानं चिद्रथमातस्थिवांसा नाना हवेते स जनास इन्द्रः ॥
yaṃ krandasī saṃyatī vihvayete pare 'vara ubhayā amitrāḥ | samānaṃ cid ratham ātasthivāṃsā nānā havete sa janāsa indraḥ ||

English translation:

“Whom (two hosts), calling and mutually encountering, call upon; whom both adversaries, high and low, (appeal to); whom two (charioteers), standing in the same car, severally invoke; he, men, is Indra.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Whom (two hosts): yam krandasī sanyatī vihvayete = whom, crying aloud, encountering (two), invoke; the substantive is supplied: rodasī, heaven and earth; or, dve sene, two armies; whom (two charioteers): here also a substantive is supplied: rathinau, two charioteers; or Agni and Indra


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यम् । क्रन्द॑सी॒ इति॑ । सं॒य॒ती इति॑ स॒म्ऽय॒ती । वि॒ह्वये॑ते॒ इति॑ वि॒ऽह्वये॑ते । परे॑ । अव॑रे । उ॒भयाः॑ । अ॒मित्राः॑ । स॒मा॒नम् । चि॒त् । रथ॑म् । आ॒त॒स्थि॒ऽवांसा॑ । नाना॑ । ह॒वे॒ते॒ इति॑ । सः । ज॒ना॒सः॒ । इन्द्रः॑ ॥
यम् । क्रन्दसी इति । संयती इति सम्यती । विह्वयेते इति विह्वयेते । परे । अवरे । उभयाः । अमित्राः । समानम् । चित् । रथम् । आतस्थिवांसा । नाना । हवेते इति । सः । जनासः । इन्द्रः ॥
yam | krandasī iti | saṃyatī itisam-yatī | vihvayeteitivi-hvayete | pare | avare | ubhayāḥ | amitrāḥ | samānam | cit | ratham | ātasthi-vāṃsā | nānā | haveteiti | saḥ | janāsaḥ | indraḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.12.8 English analysis of grammar]

yaṃ < yam < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

krandasī < krandas

[noun], nominative, dual, neuter

“army; war cry.”

saṃyatī < sami < √i

[verb noun], nominative, dual


vihvayete < vihvā < √hvā

[verb], dual, Present indikative

“raise; compete.”

pare < para

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“best; other; following; devoted(p); extreme; highest; otherwordly; better; hostile; maximal; distant; another(a); para [word]; upper; concluding; foreign; earlier; worse; longer; finest; excessive.”

'vara < avare < avara

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“worst; avara [word]; lower; nearer; base; short; low; abject; later(a); worse; antecedent.”

ubhayā < ubhayāḥ < ubhaya

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


amitrāḥ < amitra

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“enemy; foe.”

samānaṃ < samānam < samāna

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“like; identical; common; like; alike(p); same; samāna [word]; akin(p); comparable; identical; mutual; equal.”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

ātasthivāṃsā < āsthā < √sthā

[verb noun], nominative, dual

“practice; stand; assume; reach; board; perform; face; stand; stay; hop on; climb; travel; seize; follow.”



“variously; differently; many; individually.”

havete < hvā

[verb], dual, Present indikative

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

janāsa < janāsaḥ < jana

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“people; national; man; relative; jan; Janaloka; person; jana [word]; man; attendant; Jana; foreigner; inhabitant; group.”

indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

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