Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.73.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वे अ॑ग्ने सुम॒तिं भिक्ष॑माणा दि॒वि श्रवो॑ दधिरे य॒ज्ञिया॑सः । नक्ता॑ च च॒क्रुरु॒षसा॒ विरू॑पे कृ॒ष्णं च॒ वर्ण॑मरु॒णं च॒ सं धु॑: ॥
त्वे अग्ने सुमतिं भिक्षमाणा दिवि श्रवो दधिरे यज्ञियासः । नक्ता च चक्रुरुषसा विरूपे कृष्णं च वर्णमरुणं च सं धुः ॥
tve agne sumatim bhikṣamāṇā divi śravo dadhire yajñiyāsaḥ | naktā ca cakrur uṣasā virūpe kṛṣṇaṃ ca varṇam aruṇaṃ ca saṃ dhuḥ ||

English translation:

“(The gods), who are entitled to worship, soliciting your good will, have entrusted to you, resplendent Agni, the (sacrificial) food, and, (for the due observance of sacred rites), they have made the night and morning of different colours, or black and purple.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parāśaraḥ śāktaḥ [parāśara śākta];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वे । अ॒ग्ने॒ । सु॒ऽम॒तिम् । भिक्ष॑माणाः । दि॒वि । श्रवः॑ । द॒धि॒रे॒ । य॒ज्ञियाः॑ । नक्ता॑ । च॒ । च॒क्रुः । उ॒षसा । विरू॑पे॒ इति॒ विऽरू॑पे । कृ॒ष्णम् । च॒ । वर्ण॑म् । अ॒रु॒णम् । च॒ । सम् । धु॒रिति॑ धुः ॥
त्वे । अग्ने । सुमतिम् । भिक्षमाणाः । दिवि । श्रवः । दधिरे । यज्ञियाः । नक्ता । च । चक्रुः । उषसा । विरूपे इति विरूपे । कृष्णम् । च । वर्णम् । अरुणम् । च । सम् । धुरिति धुः ॥
tve | agne | su-matim | bhikṣamāṇāḥ | divi | śravaḥ | dadhire | yajñiyāḥ | naktā | ca | cakruḥ | uṣasā | virūpeitivi-rūpe | kṛṣṇam | ca | varṇam | aruṇam | ca | sam | dhurit idhuḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.73.7 English analysis of grammar]

tve < tvad

[noun], locative, singular


agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

sumatim < sumati

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“benevolence; favor; Sumati.”

bhikṣamāṇā < bhikṣamāṇāḥ < bhikṣ < √bhaj

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“beg; beg.”

divi < div

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

śravo < śravaḥ < śravas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“fame; glory; ear.”

dadhire < dhā

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

yajñiyāsaḥ < yajñiya

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“sacrificial; divine; devoted.”

naktā < nakta

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“night; night.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

cakrur < cakruḥ < kṛ

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

uṣasā < uṣas

[noun], ablative, dual, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”

virūpe < virūpa

[noun], accusative, dual, feminine

“ugly; maimed; grotesque.”

kṛṣṇaṃ < kṛṣṇam < kṛṣṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“black; dark; dark; blue; black.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

varṇam < varṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“color; caste; complexion; vowel; varṇa [word]; vowel; syllable; appearance; Karat; people; beauty; varṇa; gold; color; complexion.”

aruṇaṃ < aruṇam < aruṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“red; tawny; dusty; gray.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

saṃ < sam


“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

dhuḥ < dhā

[verb], plural, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

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