Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.48.6

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वि या सृ॒जति॒ सम॑नं॒ व्य१॒॑र्थिन॑: प॒दं न वे॒त्योद॑ती । वयो॒ नकि॑ष्टे पप्ति॒वांस॑ आसते॒ व्यु॑ष्टौ वाजिनीवति ॥
वि या सृजति समनं व्यर्थिनः पदं न वेत्योदती । वयो नकिष्टे पप्तिवांस आसते व्युष्टौ वाजिनीवति ॥
vi yā sṛjati samanaṃ vy arthinaḥ padaṃ na vety odatī | vayo nakiṣ ṭe paptivāṃsa āsate vyuṣṭau vājinīvati ||

English translation:

“She animates the diligent, and sends clients (to their patrons); and shedder of dews, knows not delay; bestower of food, at your rising the soaring birds no longer suspend (their flight).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Arthinaḥ visṛjati = she lets loose the solicitors; the explanation: te (yācakaḥ) uṣahkāle samutthāya svakīyadātṛgṛhe gacchanti, they, having risen at early morning, go to the houses of those who are their respective benefactors


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): praskaṇvaḥ kāṇvaḥ [praskaṇva kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): uṣāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhurigbṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वि । या । सृ॒जति॑ । सम॑नम् । वि । अ॒र्थिनः॑ । प॒दम् । न । वे॒ति॒ । ओद॑ती । वयः॒ । नकिः॑ । ते॒ । प॒प्ति॒वांसः॑ । आ॒स॒ते॒ विऽउ॑ष्टौ वा॒जि॒नी॒ऽव॒ति॒ ॥
वि । या । सृजति । समनम् । वि । अर्थिनः । पदम् । न । वेति । ओदती । वयः । नकिः । ते । पप्तिवांसः । आसते विउष्टौ वाजिनीवति ॥
vi | yā | sṛjati | samanam | vi | arthinaḥ | padam | na | veti | odatī | vayaḥ | naki ḥ | te | paptivāṃsaḥ | āsatevi-uṣṭau vājinī-vati

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.48.6 English analysis of grammar]



“apart; away; away.”

< yad

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

sṛjati < sṛj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“create; shoot; discharge; free; cause; throw; emit; send; produce; use; be born; make.”

samanaṃ < samanam < samana

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“marriage; conflict.”

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”

arthinaḥ < arthin

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“desirous; active; suppliant; busy.”

padaṃ < padam < pada

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“word; location; foot; footprint; pada [word]; verse; footstep; metrical foot; situation; dwelling; state; step; mark; position; trace; construction; animal foot; way; moment; social station; topographic point; path; residence; site; topic.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

vety < veti <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“approach; ask; desire; go; drive.”


[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

vayo < vayaḥ < vi

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“vi; bird; vi.”

nakiṣ < nakir



ṭe < tad

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

paptivāṃsa < paptivāṃsaḥ < pat

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“fall down; drop; fly; issue; fall; fall; decay; hang down; banish; throw; lodge; disappear.”

āsate < ās

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“sit; stay; sit down; dwell; lie; lie; exist.”

vyuṣṭau < vyuṣṭi

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“dawn; happiness; consequence.”

vājinīvati < vājinīvat

[noun], vocative, singular, feminine

“rich; rich in horses.”

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