Padarthadharmasamgraha and Nyayakandali

by Ganganatha Jha | 1915 | 250,428 words

The English translation of the Padarthadharmasamgraha of Prashastapada including the commentary called the Nyayakandali of Shridhara. Although the Padartha-dharma-sangraha is officially a commentary (bhashya) on the Vaisheshika-Sutra by Kanada, it is presented as an independent work on Vaisesika philosophy: It reorders and combines the original Sut...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Text 150:

स्रोतोभूतानाम् अपां स्थलान्निम्नाभिसर्पणं यत् तद् द्रवत्वात् स्यन्दनम् । कथं समन्ताद् रोधह्सम्योगेनावयविद्रवत्वं प्रतिबद्धम् अवयवद्रवत्वम् अप्येकार्थसमवेतं तेनैव प्रतिबद्धम् उत्तरोत्तरावयवद्रवत्वानि सम्युक्तसम्योगैः प्रतिबद्धानि । यदा तु मात्रया सेतुभेदः कृतो भवति तदा समन्तात् प्रतिबद्धत्वाद् अवयविद्रवत्वस्य कार्यारम्भो नास्ति सेतुसमीपस्थस्यावयवद्रवत्वस्योत्तरोत्तरेषाम् अवयवद्रवत्वानां प्रतिबन्धकाभावाद् वृत्तिलाभः । ततः क्रमशः सम्युक्तानाम् एवाभिसर्पणं ततः पूर्वद्रव्यविनाशे सति प्रबन्धेनावस्थितैरवयविर्दीर्घं द्रव्यम् आरभ्यते तत्र च कारणगुणपूर्वक्रमेण द्रवत्वम् उत्पद्यते तत्र च कारणानां सम्युक्तानां प्रबन्धेन गमने यद् अवयविनि कर्मोत्पद्यते तत् स्यन्दनाख्यम् इति ॥ १५० ॥

srotobhūtānām apāṃ sthalānnimnābhisarpaṇaṃ yat tad dravatvāt syandanam | kathaṃ samantād rodhahsamyogenāvayavidravatvaṃ pratibaddham avayavadravatvam apyekārthasamavetaṃ tenaiva pratibaddham uttarottarāvayavadravatvāni samyuktasamyogaiḥ pratibaddhāni | yadā tu mātrayā setubhedaḥ kṛto bhavati tadā samantāt pratibaddhatvād avayavidravatvasya kāryārambho nāsti setusamīpasthasyāvayavadravatvasyottarottareṣām avayavadravatvānāṃ pratibandhakābhāvād vṛttilābhaḥ | tataḥ kramaśaḥ samyuktānām evābhisarpaṇaṃ tataḥ pūrvadravyavināśe sati prabandhenāvasthitairavayavirdīrghaṃ dravyam ārabhyate tatra ca kāraṇaguṇapūrvakrameṇa dravatvam utpadyate tatra ca kāraṇānāṃ samyuktānāṃ prabandhena gamane yad avayavini karmotpadyate tat syandanākhyam iti || 150 ||

Text (150):—When water in the form, of a current moves from a certain place downwards, this action is called ‘Flowing and it is due to Fluidity.

Question: “How so?”

Answer: (Before the water flows) its inherent fluidity is kept in check by its contact all round with the high earth-banks; and as for the fluidity of its component particles those chat are in direct touch (with the banks),—that also is kept in check by the same contact, by reason of its inhering in the same substrate (with this contact); and the fluidity of the other particles is checked by the (contact of the conjoined.’ When however, there is the slightest breach in the surrounding embankment, then, though the fluidity of the whole volume of water is still kept in check on all sides, and hence it does not become active, (begin to flow) yet the fluidity of the particle in direct contact with the opening becomes active; and this activity is transferred gradually to the fluidity of the other particles also, as the obstruction goes on disappearing; there is a gradual moving of these particles in conjunction with one another, and the original volume of water having been destroyed (by the destruction of its co-hesive conjunction), the water particles adhering to one another produce another, an elongated substance (an elongated volume of water); and in this fresh substance the quality of fluidity is produced in accordance with the similar quality in its originative component particles. And thus when these originative component particles continue to move in conjunction, there is produced a like action in the composite whole also; and to this action we give the name of ‘Flowing.’—(V-ii-4).

Commentary: The Nyāyakandalī of Śrīdhara.

(English rendering of Śrīdhara’s commentary called Nyāyakandalī or Nyāyakaṇḍalī from the 10th century)

The author proceeds to explain how fluidity produces action:—The moving down or flowing of water from the upper to the lower surface of the earth is action produced by fluidity.

Being asked as to how this comes about, the author proceeds to explain. The water being hemned in on ail sides by an embankment of earth, its inherent fluidity is held in. check; and hence there is flowing of the water. As for the fluidity of the component particles of water, that belonging to the particles touching the embankments, is checked by reason of its inhering in the same particles that form the substratum of that contact; and that belonging to the other particles is checked by reason of these particles being in contact with particles in direct contact with the embankments; and so on.

When, however, there is a slight breach in the embankment, though in the begining, there is no flowing activity of the whole volume of water,—because its dimensions are large, and it is hemened in by an embankment of larger dimensions, and a large volume could not move out-of the small opening in the banks,—yet the particle of water in proximity to the breach is enabled to move out by reason of its small volume; and when this particle has moved out, it removes the obstacle to, and makes: room for, the functioning of the fluidity Of the other particles. And thus there, is moving of the water particles in contact with one another; the particle near the embankment is the first to move; then the particle that is close to it; and then that which is in contact with this latter; and so on, all the particles move on. Though when moving, these particles do not move from their respective places, yet when they move they do so in such a manner as to remain in contact with one another. This is what is meant by their moving in conjunction; which does not mean that they have their previous contacts undisturbed; because we find the ape changed. Thus then, the previous contacts having been destroyed, the substance—the original volume of water as a whole—becomes destroyed; and the particles adhering to one another produce an elongated substance; and in this substance fluidity is produced in accordance with the fluidity of its component particles. Thus, when the component particles move out in close adherence to one another, a like action is set in the composite whole, which thus, by reason of its fluidity, flows out.

And thus we find that when fluidity is produced in the new volume of water, and the component particles move out in a continuous line, not deviating from their original position in the volume, the fluidity of the whole volume produces in it an action which is called ‘Flowing.’

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